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HOMETHE BOOKSHELVESTHE DICTIONARYLANGUAGE INDEXWORK BY ANDREW DALBYLINKSWEB SEARCH

List of regional minority languages in the pre-2004 European Union

Acknowledgments to www.eurolang.net, where this listing originally appeared. Apologies for misspellings and inconsistencies, some original, some perhaps introduced in re-formatting. Note that a language will be listed under each country in which it is spoken, sometimes under varying names; for example, Albanian is listed as 'Arbërishte' under GREECE and as 'Arberor' under ITALY

Austria

CESKY (Czech)

Family: Indo-European, Slavic branch

Region: Vienna and in the Lower Austrian (Niederösterreich) regions of Marchfeld and Tullner Feld .

Numerical Strength: 8,033 according to the 1991 census. Estimates by ethnic Czech organisations are between 15.000 and 20.000

Status: All Austrian minorities are protected by the Treaty of St. Germain (State Law Gazette No. 303/1920; Articles 66 to 68), which has constitutional status. The Treaty of Brno between Austria and Czechoslovakia of June 7 th, 1920 (Federal Law Gazette No.163/1921) allows the setting up of private Czech or Slovak schools in Vienna which are recognised by the State and also to set up public schools in Vienna with Slovak or Czech as languages of instruction. The Ethnic Groups Act of July 7th, 1976 (Federal Law Gazette No. 196/1976) provides minority rights for Slovaks, Romanies, Burgenland Croats, Hungarians in Vienna and Burgenland, Carinthian Slovenes and Czechs.

Public service: Because of the 25% barrier introduced by the Ethnic Groups Act, limiting the protection of minorities as guaranteed under Article 7/Z.3 of the constitutional Vienna State Treaty (1955), an amendment to this law according to the Ethnic Group Basic Act (October 24, 1995 Draft) is needed.

Education: The Czech educational system is based on the private Voluntary Educational Association, Komenský. The teaching plan of the private Komenský school is set up in parallel to the state teaching plans for elementary and the earlier years of secondary school. The intended language of instruction in elementary schools is Czech although this facility is now practically bilingual. Second graders receive five hours of German and six hours of Czech language instruction. One hour of English is added in the third grade. Pupils atttending higher secondary school classes are taught bilingually. Czech, German and English language instruction supplements the system. The Czech ethnic group currently has no classes at this level. After graduating from the Komenský Hauptschule the students must complete their education in a language other then their own. The voluntary Educational Association (Verein) Komenský began the 1996/1997 school year with an academic breakthrough. The experimental "bilingual secondary school" programme offers a limited number of students the opportunity to graduate in a bilingual four year school setting. The teachers' academy introduced a final exam in Czech in 1991 for its graduating teachers candidates. Czech can be studied on the university level either as a translator, teaching or masters degree programme.

Media: The language is included in one television programme. There are no Czech radio broadcasts in Austria. The following periodicals are published in Austria in Czech: Viennese Free Press; Journal for Our Fellow Countrymen; Klub; Information Bulletin; Komenský;

HRVATSKI (Croatian)

Family: Indo-European, Slavic

Region: The Croatian ethnic group in Burgenland lives in six (Neusiedl/Niuzalj, Eisenstadt/_eljezno, Mattersburg/Matrstof, Oberpullendorf/Gornja Pulja, Oberwart/Borta, Güssing/Novi Grad) of the state`s seven districts. The Croats do not make up the majority population in any of these districts. They are strongest in relative terms in the Oberpullendorf district, and are strongest in absolute terms in the Eisenstadt district. Compact Croatian regions that are now increasingly becoming bilingual exist only in the Oberpullendorf and Eisenstadt districts.

A substantial segment of the Croatian ethnic group has moved to Vienna, mainly because of economic reasons, like job shortages in Burgenland. Part of this group continues to commute on a weekly basis, the remainder have definitively settled in Vienna. The Burgenland Croats in Vienna are culturally and ethnically well organised.

Numerical Strength: 25,713 according to 1991 census. Surveys carried out by the churches in Burgenland show that approximately 35,000 parishioners would prefer to have Sunday church services conducted in Croatian. The Croatian Voluntary Cultural Association of Vienna estimates that 15,000 Burgenland Croats live in the capital.This discrepancy illustrates the difficulties that census taking has in dealing with ethnic reality.

Status: Article 7/Z.3 of the constitutional Vienna State Treaty of May 15th, 1955 (Federal Law Gazette No. 152/1955) contains one of the strongest declaration of rights for Croats in Burgenland and Slovenes in Carinthia and Styria. In addition all Austrian minorities are protected.under the Treaty of St. Germain (State Law Gazette No. 303/1920; Articles 66 to 68), which has constitutional status.

The Ethnic Groups Act of July 7th, 1976 (Federal Law Gazette No. 196/1976) provides minority rights for Burgenland Croats, Hungarians in Vienna and Burgenland, Carinthian Slovenes, Romanies, and Czechs and Slovaks.

Public Service: Burgenland Croats have the following constitutional rights under Article 7/Z.3 of the constitutional Vienna State Treaty:

*to use Croatian with the authorities; granted in 25 communities,

*to use Croatian before courts of justice; granted only before 6 district law courts,

*to bilingual printed forms; granted only sporadically,

*to use Croatian in official publications; not granted in Burgenland,

*to bilingual place and road signs, not respected in Burgenland.To date not one single official bilingual topographical sign has been posted.

Because of the 25% barrier introduced by the Ethnic Groups Act, limiting the protection of minorities as guaranteed under Article 7/Z.3 of the constitutional Vienna State Treaty (1955), an amendment to this law according to the Ethnic Group Basic Act (October 24, 1995 Draft) is needed.

Education: The Burgenland state Kindergarten Act (LBGl.35/1995) provides for the establishment of bilingual kindergartens. Croatian can be declared an "official kindergarten language" if the native Austrian parents and guardians of over 25% of the children formally request it. Parents must register their children. If a bilingual kindergarten does not have at least one staff member at its disposal who is fluent in the language of the ethnic group then the government is required to appoint an assistant kindergarten teacher. The language of the ethnic group must be adequately taught, at the very least for six hours a week, preferably at least for one hour each day. The use and affectiveness of native language training in kindergarten is almost exclusively dependent on the skills and dedication of the kindergarten teachers.

Since 1994 a child attending a traditional bilingual school can be unregistered from bilingual education. Children attending bilingual schools who have been unregistered must then be taught according to the „normal" teaching plan, i.e. in German.Teachers are no longer permitted to speak Croatian to them. The three hours usually reserved for Croatian class are then replaced with an hour each of German, physical education and handicrafts. The term "bilingual" has not been precisely defined. It remains up to the teacher and the proficiency of the pupils to determine to what extent Croatian is used and to what degree the children should be challenged to improve their skills. An optimal model for the preservation of the native language would be the introduction of mandatory bilingual education in the traditionally bilingual regions.

At secondary level (Hauptschule) teaching for ethnic groups may only be organised on a monolingual basis i.e. in either Croatian or Hungarian. German in these schools is taught for up to six hours a week as a foreign language.The Minority Schools Act provides for the establishment of one secondary school in Oberwart/Borta.

Media:Several Croatian language journals and periodicals are published catering mainly for Burgenland Croats. The regional service of the Austrian Public Broadcasting (ORF) provides 40 minutes of programmes a day, except on Sundays. The only television program that can be currently picked up in Burgenland in Croatian is the weekly 30 minute programme directed at ethnic groups.

The Burgenland Croats recently founded a private radio station, RadioMora, which will transmit in the minority languages.

Croatian is also spoken as a lesser used langauges in Moliser and campobasso (Italy), and in Burgenland and Vienna (Austria).

MAGYAR (Hungarian)

Family: Non-Indo-European, Finnish-Ugric

Region: In addition to a considerable number of speakers in Vienna the majority of the Burgenland Hungarians live in four big Hungarian linguistic enclaves: Oberpullendorf/ Felsöpulya, Oberwart/Felsöör, Siget in der Wart/ örisziget, Unterwart/ Alsóör.

Numerical Strength: 1991Census:Burgenland 4.973, Vienna: 8.930. The results of the censuses have always been doubted by representatives of the ethnic group, because it is hardly possible to conduct an objective survey on the affiliation to a language community in a society that is not what you would call well-disposed towards ethnic groups and minority languages.

Status: All Austrian minorities are protected by the Treaty of St. Germain (State Law Gazette No. 303/1920; Articles 66 to 68), which has constitutional status. The Ethnic Groups Act of July 7th, 1976 (Federal Law Gazette No. 196/1976) provides minority rights for Slovaks, Romanies, Burgenland Croats, Hungarians in Vienna and Burgenland, Carinthian Slovenes and Czechs.

Public service: Because of the 25% barrier introduced by the Ethnic Groups Act, limiting the protection of minorities as guaranteed under Article 7/Z.3 of the constitutional Vienna State Treaty (1955), an amendment to this law according to the Ethnic Group Basic Act (October 24, 1995 Draft) is needed.

Education: The collapse of the Iron Curtain in 1989 did not leave Austria unaffected. The opening of the eastern border led to a consumer boom in Burgenland. Initially the lack of language skills in the region had a negative affect on trade and the labour market. The skyrocketing use of Hungarian then led to a boom in ethnic awareness among members of the ethnic group. The school system began again supporting teaching in Hungarian. The Minority School Act for Burgenland (1994), as well as stipulations of the Burgenland Mandatory School Act (1995), govern the use of ethnic languages in Burgenland.Since the passing of the Kindergarten Act of Burgenland (Provincial Law Gazette No. 7/1990) Hungarian has been used as the language of care alongside German in 4 kindergartens in Burgenland. Bilingual Hungarian instruction is offered in the elemantary schools in Oberwart/Felssör, Unterwart and Siget in der Wart. In all other schools it is either optional or available on a voluntary basis. One school (Haupschule/school of general education) in Oberwart/Felsöör introduced one class with Hungarian as the mandatory language of instruction. The secondary school system in Burgenland offers Hungarian training in the following schools: bilingual education in the bilingual secondary school in Oberwart/Felsöör, a mandatory course at the federal secondary school (BG/BRG) in Oberpullendorf and a voluntary course or optional class in various other schools in the state.

The first bilingual class in the federal secondary school in Oberwart/Felsöör is now approaching graduation. The number of students participating has increased.

Three years after the introduction of Hungarian to the secondary business school the language became so popular that the entire class of 1996 graduated with Hungarian as their second living language requirement. The value of this development can be judged by the success of this graduating class: not one of them is unemployed. Despite this success story the school dropped Hungarian completely.

Media: The federal Austrian Radio and Television Network (ORF) Burgenland broadcasts a half hour Hungarian language radio programme every Sunday evening at the same time the TV evening news is shown. Four times a year, on holidays, ORF Burgenland broadcasts a television programme for the Burgenland Hungarians. The establishment of a private station is currently not possible because of technical, financial and legal considerations. The only Hungarian language periodicals published especially for the Burgenland Hungarians are produced by the Burgenland Hungarian Voluntary Cultural Association.

ROMANES (Romany)

Family: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian branch

Region: The primary traditional area of settlement is Burgenland, as well as Vienna and Lower Austria. Sinti and Lovara, which make up the remaining part of the ethnic group, live almost exclusively in urban centres.

Numerical Strength: Two thirds of the entire Austrian Romany population fell victim to the National Socialist´s racist extermination policy. According to the estimate of the ethnic group, the current numerical strength of the ethnic group has again reached the size it was at the begining of Nazi rule in 1938, i.e. approximately 30,000. The overwhelming majority of this population is made up of Romanies. The Sinti and Lovara together number about 1,000 members.

Status: All Austrian minorities are protected.under the Treaty of St. Germain (State Law Gazette No. 303/1920; Articles 66 to 68), which has constitutional status. The Ethnic Groups Act of July 7th, 1976 (Federal Law Gazette No. 196/1976) provides minority rights for Burgenland Croats, Hungarians in Vienna and Burgenland, Carinthian Slovenes, Romanies, and Czechs and Slovaks.

Public Service: Because of the 25% barrier introduced by the Ethnic Groups Act, limiting the protection of minorities as guaranteed under Article 7/Z.3 of the constitutional Vienna State Treaty (1955), an amendment to this law according to the Ethnic Group Basic Act (October 24, 1995 Draft) is needed.

Education: At present no formal training in Romany exists. The standardisation of Romany into a written language with hard and fast grammatical rules is now underway. The Minority Protection Act for Burgenland (BGBl. No. 641/1994) includes provisions guaranteeing the Romanies the right to language instruction in the Romany native language. The implementation of this legal right however depends on certain technicalities which need to be overcome. Because of the educational ban on Romany during the Third Reich and the decades of extreme segregation and discrimination following liberation, Romany families are now suffering from a state of educational underdevelopment which will take years to undo.

Media:There are currently no autonomous radio and television stations nor a daily newspaper serving Romanies in Austria. Two periodicals are published by the Romany themselves.

SLOVENSKO (Slovene)

Family: Indo-European, Slavic branch

Region:

Carinthia: The bilingual area of Carinthia usually covers the valleys of Jauntal/Podjuna, Rosental/Ro and Gailtal/Zila. This is not entirely correct because the bilingual area of the province extends beyond these valleys on the one hand, but does not include all of the Gailtal/Zila valley, on the other.

Styria: The majority of the Styrian Slovenes live in the so-called "Radkersburg Corner" (Radkersburger Eck), covering the areas of Leutschach, Soboth and Graz.

Numerical Strength: 14,850 Carinthian Slovenes and 1,695 Styrian Slovenes (1991 census). Accvording to Slovene organisations on the ground however these figure are 35,000 and 5,000 for Carinthia and Styria respectively.

Status: One of the strongest declarations of rights for Slovenes in Carinthia and Styria and for Croats in Burgenland is contained in Article 7/Z.3 of the constitutional Vienna State Treaty. All Austrian minorities are protected by the Treaty of St. Germain (State Law Gazette No. 303/1920; Articles 66 to 68), which has constitutional status. The Ethnic Groups Act of July 7th, 1976 (Federal Law Gazette No. 196/1976) provides minority rights for Slovaks, Romanies, Burgenland Croats, Hungarians in Vienna and Burgenland, Carinthian Slovenes and Czechs. The Voluntary Cultural Association for Styria was founded in 1988. One of ist main goals is to ensure the realisation of the constitutional rights of the originally Slovene and now bilingual population of Styria. The Assciation is currently the sole representative of the interests of the ethnic group.

Public Service: Carinthian and Styrian Slovenes have the following constitutional rights under Article 7/Z.3 of the constitutional Vienna State Treaty in Carinthia only. These rights do not extend to Styria.:

*to use Slovene before the authorities:The right is granted only in 14 of the - according to the law - 41 communities.

*to use Slovene before courts of justice. This right is granted before 3 district law courts.

*to bilingual printed forms in the revenue office only.

*to bilingual public signage: This right is granted in 68 of the - according to the law - 800 localities.

Because of the 25% barrier introduced by the Ethnic Groups Act, limiting the protection of minorities as guaranteed under Article 7/Z.3 of the constitutional Vienna State Treaty (1955), an amendment to this law according to the Ethnic Group Basic Act (October 24, 1995 Draft) is needed.

Education:

Carinthia: For several decades there was a complete lack of bilingual kindergartens in southern Carinthia. To fill this gap the Slovene community pooled impressive financial resources for the administration of 6 private kindergartens. Only in the past few years have the Slovene communities been able to establish 7 bilingual public kindergartens in their municipalities. Carinthian Slovenes have demanded for years that the state Kindergarten Act be amended. The right to bilingual schooling should be expanded to include bilingual kindergarten instruction. The amendment should guarantee that children attending public kindergartens should automatically have access to bilingual training. The current situation is such that villages must individually negotiate, and because of political in-fighting votes are cast against the setting up of public kindergartens.

In elementary schools a separate bilingual (Slovene/German) language class is set up when nine or more children per class register for bilingual instruction. In such cases the class is made up solely of pupils taught on a bilingual basis and runs parallel to a class on the same grade level for students being taught exclusively in German. If the number of children registred for bilingual education is under nine then the class remains intact. During the periods when the regular teacher is instructing the bilingual students a teaching assistant is brought in to instruct the non-registered students. This system is intended to guarantee that the children are at all times under the supervision of a teacher: the registered students alternately in German and Slovene, the non-registered students in German only. In 1997/1998 25,71% of all students in the bilingual area were registered for bilinigual education.

Registered bilingual Hauptschule (School of General Education) students are offered Slovene language classes in the form of course matter. Problems have arisen from the fact that these optional Slovene classes often compete with English classes. For understandable reasons many students prefer not to miss English class thereby sacrificing their instruction in Slovene.

The Federal Secondary School for Slovenes in Klagenfurt/Celovec was founded in 1957. The school has enabled the Slovene population of Carinthia, for the first time, to develop a broad spectrum of well trained citizens educated in Slovene.

The founding of the Bilingual Business Academy in Klagenfurt/Celovec in 1989 fulfils a long-standing request from the Carinthian Slovene community. Training in business and economics has drastically increased in importance over the last decades. The private School for Women´s Professions, a parochial Slovene school run by nuns has been upgraded into a Higher Training Institution for Business Professions.

Styria: The constitutional right to elementary education in Slovene is not respected in Styria. Modest attempts do exist to offer voluntary training in the Slovene language in various schools on the border with Sloveni; these include optional two hour language classes for third and fourth graders in many elementary schools.

Media:

Carinthia: There are several Slovene language weekly journals and periodicals published especially for the Carinthian Slovenes. The field of electronic media is covered by Radio Carinthia, which broadcasts a daily one hour radio show in Slovene and the federal Austrian Radio and Television Network (ORF) , which broadcasts a half hour Slovene TV programme each Sunday. The Carinthian Slovenes recently founded two private media companies, Radio Korotan and Radio Agora. Both transmit a full day of radio programming in Slovene or bilingually.

Styria: No media coverage in the Slovene language currently exists. There are neither electronic nor print media services specifically geared to the needs of the ethnic group in Styria.

Miscellaneous:

Carinthia: The traditional form of preserving the culutural heritage of the Carinthian Slovenes, such as ethnic choirs, folklore initiatives and folk theater groups, are now being increasingly complemented by more sophisticated art forms including "experimental" and dance theater, cinema, contemporary music, modern literature.

Slovene is also spoken as a lesser used language in Friuli Venetia-Giulia (Italy).

SLOVENSKY (Slovak)

Family: Indo-European, Slavic

Region: Approximately one third of the ethnic group lives in Lower Austria. The majority lives in Vienna. The rest of the ethnic group lives is dispersed all over Austria, although there is a tendency to congregate in the states of Upper Austria and Styria.

Numerical Strength: The 1991 census numbers Slovak speakers at 835. Estimates by Slovak ethnic organisations suggest 5,000 speakers.

Status: All Austrian minorities are protected by the Treaty of St. Germain (State Law Gazette No. 303/1920; Articles 66 to 68), which has constitutional status. The Treaty of Brno between Austria and Czechoslovakia of June 7 th, 1920 (Federal Law Gazette No.163/1921) allows the setting up of private Czech or Slovak schools in Vienna which are recognised by the State and also to set up public schools in Vienna with Slovak or Czech as languages of instruction. The Ethnic Groups Act of July 7th, 1976 (Federal Law Gazette No. 196/1976) provides minority rights for Slovaks, Romanies, Burgenland Croats, Hungarians in Vienna and Burgenland, Carinthian Slovenes and Czechs.

Education: There are no Slovak language schools in Austria. The Austrian-Slovak Voluntary Cultural Association organised private Slovak lessons for children in Vienna, which now have been taken over by the city school board which funds two groups of 9 students. The courses have volontary status. The secondary school for business in Vienna offers training in Slovak as do the Viennese University of Business and Commerce, the University of Vienna and the academies of continuous education.

Media: The Slovak ehnic group has neither radio nor television programming, daily, weekly, or monthly periodicals in its native language. The Austrian-Slovak Voluntary Cultural Association and the Slovak clergy publish the bulletin Pohl`ady, which has a circulation of 1,200 and is produced four times a year. It is in Slovak with individual German language articles.

Belgium

DEUTSCH (German)

Family: Indo-European: Germanic

Region: German is spoken in a geographically discontinuous area which stretches for about 100 kilometres along the border with Germany and Luxembourg. When describing the situation of German in Belgium, it is necessary to make a distinction between the areas awarded to Belgium in 1918 following the Treaty of Versailles (the cantons of Eupen, Malmedy and St. Vith), and those German-speaking areas which have been part of Belgium since its creation in 1830 (Montzener Land, an area around Montzen/Welkenraedt), or since 1839, following the division of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Areler Land, which corresponds to the administrative district of Arlon, near the border with Luxembourg). The latter region is now generally considered a part of the LNtzebuergesch-speaking area, as the local Germanic speech is effectively the same as the national language of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

Numerical strength: According to estimates, the number of speakers ranges from between 95,000 and 100,000 (69,000 speakers in the officially recognized areas, and 20,000/25,000 speakers in the other unrecognized areas).

Status: German is one of the three official languages of Belgium (alongside Dutch and French). However, it is officially recognized only in the nine municipalities of the region of Eupen and St. Vith (German-language community). Consecutive constitutional reforms in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s have given the German-language community in this area certain legal powers, similar to the other linguistic communities in Belgium, although more limited in scope. The German-language community (with its executive body and community council) can act autonomously in matters relating to culture, health, education etc. However, the German-language community forms part of the territory of the region of Wallonia, and is dependent on decisions from the regional Walloon Council in important socioeconomic matters such as economic policy, environment, public works, transport, energy etc.

Public services: In the official German-language community all public services are carried out in German, documents are available in German and French and public officials must have a knowledge of German. The use of German is allowed in local courts and in the appeal court in LiPge. Public signs are usually in German. Some roadsigns, however, are bilingual (French-German).

In the area around Montzen/Welkenraedt and in the municipalities of Malmedy and Waimes certain 'facilities' are given to members of the public who want to use a language other than French in their dealings with the public administration. However, this opportunity is seldom availed of.

Education: In the official German-language community education is entirely in German, from pre-primary to higher level. Primary school teachers are trained in German. There is no German-language university in Belgium. German-speaking students either go to universities in Germany or take courses at Belgian universities through French or Dutch. Those who wish to enter German-language secondary school teaching, but who studied at a Belgian university first need to pass a linguistic test. There is an extensive network of adult language classes in German. A certain number of primary schools offer German from the third year on.

Media: There are no television services in German. There is, however, one public radio service entirely in German, and there are also a number of local radio stations which broadcast in the language. There is one daily newspaper in German. A large number of periodical publications covering a wide variety of interests are published in German.

Miscellaneous: Books, theatre productions, libraries, cultural centres, museums are only some of the many cultural activities and facilities in German.

German is also spoken as a lesser used language in Denmark, France and Italy.

LETZEBUERGESCH (Luxembourgish)

Family: Indo-European: Germanic, but classified as Moselle-Frankish (West-moselfränkisch) or Luxembourgish-Frankish by certain philologists and linguists.

Region: Luxembourgish is spoken in the administrative area of Arlon/Arel (Areler Land) which is adjacent to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. There is no diaspora. Arelerland is a historical and toponomical unit.

Numerical strength: There are no official figures on the number of speakers of Luxembourgish. Estimates mention a figure of 24,000.

Status: In 1990 a decree concerning the protection and promotion of the regional languages was passed by the Council of the French Community of Belgium. Following the adoption of the decree, a Council of Regional Languages was created to act as a consultative body in all matters relating to these languages. Luxembourgish is officially represented.

Public services: The official language of provincial and communal administration is French. In the last few years a certain number of bilingual street signs have been erected in French/Luxembourgish or Luxembourgish only. This was done by the local authorities in response to legal obligations in this area.

Education: The official language of the education system is French. More demands are now made for the introduction of Luxembourgish in schools. In one pre-primary school the language is used as a teaching medium as part of a pilot programme. The teaching of Luxembourgish to adults is very much in demand, especially among people working across the border in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, but it is very much hampered by a lack of qualified teachers.

Luxembourgish is also spoken as a lesser used language in the area around Diedenhofen/Thionville (France).

WALON (including the other regional languages of Oïl: Champenois, Lorrain and Picard, etc.)

Family: Indo-European: Romance

Region: In addition to French, there are also a variety of regional languages spoken on an occasional and informal basis in the French Community of Belgium.

Numerical strength: Walloon is spoken by an estimated 600,000 people in the greater part of the province of Liège, in the French-speaking part of the province of Brabant, in the province of Namur, in the northern part of the province of Luxembourg and in the eastern part of the province of Hainaut. Picard is spoken by an estimated 200,000 people in the western part of the province of Hainaut. Lorrain is spoken by an estimated 20,000 people in the south of the province of Luxembourg and Champenois is spoken in a few villages in the west of the provinces of Namur and Luxembourg.

Status: In 1990 a decree concerning the protection and promotion of these regional languages and granting them co-officiality was passed by the Council of the French Community. Following the adoption of the decree, a Council of Regional Languages was created to function as a consultative body in all matters relating to these languages.

Public services: No public presence except in numerous place-names.

Education: The aim of the decree is to develop the presence of the regional languages in the education system. At present, the languages are offered as voluntary subjects in various primary and secondary schools, and in third-level non-university establishments. It is, however, not possible (and not intended by the decree) to introduce the regional languages as languages of instruction, as this would be against the Belgian language acts. Adult courses are being set up in many places, and Walloon is offered as an optional subject in Romance Philology at several universities (Brussels, Liège and Louvain-La-Neuve).

Media: The French-language public radio and television service (RTBF) broadcasts some programmes in the regional languages. There are also a number of local radio and television stations doing the same. Some articles appear in the French-language press in the regional languages. Several local associations publish periodicals dealing with the literature and linguistic make-up of these languages.

Miscellaneous: There is a great theatrical and literary tradition in Walloon: there are now two Walloon theatres and numerous publications appear in the language.

Denmark

DEUTSCH (German)

Family: Indo-European: Germanic

Region: German is spoken in the region of Nord-Schleswig (bordering Germany).

Numerical strength: German as a mother-tongue and the language of cultural identification is spoken by about 15 to 20,000 people in Nord-Schleswig, which has a total population of about 250,000. A large proportion of the majority population masters German due to the proximity of the border.

Status: The bilateral declaration 'Bonner und Kopenhagener Erklaerungen' of 1955 protects the use of the respective minority language (German in Denmark and Danish in Germany).

Public services: There is no great public presence for the language. The language is not used on official notices, in official documents or in the courts. A knowledge of German is not required for employment in the public service.

Education:

(1)german is taught as a foreign language in all danish schools in the region.

(2) in nordschleswig some pupils attend private german schools where german is used as a teaching medium and danish is taught as a subject. within the act for private schools these schools are partially funded by the danish government and local authorities as well as through subsidies from the german federal government. teachers may on a voluntary basis attend professional training courses in denmark or germany.

(3) danish universities offer degree courses in german. adult language classes in german are also available. a growing number of adults want to learn the language particularly since 1989 (reunification of germany).

Media: There are no television or radio stations broadcasting exclusively in German. There are however bilingual transfrontier programmes in which German and Danish are used according to subject. It is possible to receive programmes broadcast by German radio and TV channels. There is one German-language daily newspaper covering the region and international news.

Miscellaneous: There are also many German language organisations serving speakers of the language throughout the region.

German is also spoken as a lesser used language in Belgium, France and Italy.

Finland

ROMANES (Romany)

Family: Indo-European: Indo-Aryan branch

Region: Throughout the country

Numerical strength: 10, 000 Finnish Roma in Finland, 3000 in Sweden as immigrants. In total 13,000 Finnish Roma.

Status: According to the Finnish Constitutional Act of 1995 the Roma have the right to maintain and to develop their own language and culture. In 1977 (national law), a Romany-language committee was established within the autochthonous Language Research Center.

Public services: In the past three years, several Lutheran Churches have organized services in Romany-language (although not regularly). In conjunction with the National Board of Education, the Romany Educational Unit has published various school material : teaching books, language cassettes, etc. Romany associations publish their own magazines containing articles both in Finnish and Romany-language.

Education: As a Finnish citizen, a Romany person has equal educational rights with the rest of the population. In practice, however, the position of the Romany people is more complex. A series of decrees which came into effect in 95/96 stipulate that in pre-schools, comprehensive schools, upper secondary schools and upper secondary schools fro adults, students whose native language is Sami, Romany or a foreign language can be taught in their native language in place of Finnish or Swedish. They can then take either Finnish or Swedish as their second choice. Romany was first taught in the early 1980s at study circles in one locality only. Since 1989 however the Romany language and culture have been more widespread in comprehensive schools. Most municipalities have formed groups of five from their Romani pupil/students, and these groups are given tuition in their own language and culture for 2 hours a week, either within the lesson framework of the school or outside of it. Small groups have resulted in less needs for other forms of remedial teaching.

Smaller classes for Romany language have also been experimented with. Pupils have then studied part of the week in classes according to their age. In this case they were provided with additional remedial teaching in Finnish for those subjects in which they had difficulties in making progress.

Personal study plans including the teaching of their own language and culture have also been formulated for pupils who failed to complete their school studies. At the present time, close to 250 children in different parts of Finland are receiving tuition in Romany language and culture. This tuition is being delivered by thirteen adult Romany persons who also act as teacher's and cultural interpreters.

Media: News in Romany is broadcast once a week on the national radio channel.

RUSKY (Russian)

Family: Indo-European: Slavic branch

Region: Throughout the country

Numerical strength: It is difficult to ascertain the number of permanently settled Russian-speakers from previous decades because as Finnish citizens their linguistic background is not listed. But there does exist an autochthonous Russian-speaking minority in Finland (ca. 5,000 people) who are different to the 20,000 odd Russian-speaking people who arrived more recently (after the 19th century). Some of them came to Finland following their marriage but most of them are relatives of Russian Finns who return to Finland. They are descendants of officers, clergymen, merchants, entrepreneurs, and artisans who settled in Finland during the 19thC.

Status: No official legal status, however a 1992 agreement between Russia and Finland contains a clause where both states guarantee to support the preservation of the identity of people belonging to the Russian minority in Finland and the Finnish minority in Russia.

Education: Russian speaking pupils can get Russian lessons two hours every week in schools as all pupils in Finland whose mother tongue is not Finnish or Swedish are entitled.

Media: There are news bulletins in Russian every day on the radio. TV programmes can be received by satellite from Russia. Vestnik a magazine published in Russian appears ten times a year and is financially supported by the Ministry of Education. A newsletter is also published and distributed free of charge to Russian speakers in an effort to keep them in contact with each other.

Miscellaneous: Forum, an association of different Russian speaking clubs present in large cities and supported by the Finnish Government, was founded in 1994, provides a forum for the Russian-speaking minority to discuss their mutual problems. Some orthodox and Lutheran parishes have services in Russian.

SAMEGIELLA (Sami)

Family: Non-Indo-European: Finno-Ugric, Fennic branch

Region: Three Sami languages are spoken in Finland: North Sami, Inari Sami and Skolt Sami. Utsjoki, Inari, Enontekiö and northern Sodankylä.

Numerical strength: North Sami: 1,800, Inari Sami: c.400 and Solt: Sami 400

Status: A Sami Parliament in Finland protects the rights of the Sami people in that country by implementing the Sami Language Act of 1992. All three Sami languages are included in the act but none are accorded the same legal status as Finnish and Swedish.

Public services: Official government employees are not obliged to know the language but translation or interpretation is provided in cases where officials do not speak it. The Sami also have the right to receive documents and information in their language and to use it with authorities. It can also be included as a native language on the official census. The Sami Language Office, set up by the Sami Parliament, ensures that public buildings and road signs are bilingual Finnish/Sami in addition to various announcements by the authorities and notices in newspapers.

Education: Since the language act there has been an increase in the number learning Sami at school from primary to third level and in theory everybody has access to it throughout the whole school cycle. The language used in schools is North Sami as this is the language used by 70% of Sami-speaking schools. Inari and Skolt are however used also in schools but to a much lesser extent. Providing the necessary service in the child's own language at pre-primary level is the responsibility of the local authority but official day-care centres run through Sami are still few and far between. There are however some private Sami-speaking pre-schools which have been set up by parents. At primary level Sami is the only language of instruction and as the child moves through the early years of secondary school subjects taught through the language become fewer and fewer. This is mainly due to a shortage of teachers and teaching materials. In the 'Lukio' or higher level secondary schools, Sami is used in the teaching of two subjects only.

Sami can be studied as a third level subject at the universities of Helsinki, Oulu and Rovaniemi (Lapland). Also a quota of places is reserved in certain university training programmes for Sami-language students at the Universities of Lapland and Oulu. The Sámi Allaskuvla in Norway takes in students from other states including Finland and here tuition is in Sami and the qualification by agreement is valid in the other Scandinavian states.

Media: The national broadcasters of Finland, Sweden and Norway co-operate in their provision of Sami-language programmes for these countries. Broadcasts in the language throughout the Nordic countries amount to approximately 12 hours per week i.e. 4 to 6 hours for each country. Newspapers have been published in the language since the 1870s and publications for schools have been appearing in the language since 1978 when the language first started being used in schools.

Miscellaneous: Sami of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russia have their joint international organization, the 'Sami Council' which endeavors internationally and in the territories of these four countries to promote Sami rights.

SVENSKA (Swedish)

Family: Indo-European: Germanic

Region: Mostly in coastal areas of österbotten, Nyland and Aboland, and also on the Aland Islands: 16,000 km2 in total. The Language Act stipulates that areas where the population of Swedish speakers is in the majority are designated official Swedish-speaking areas. Swedish remains the second most important language of communication in Finnish-speaking only areas.

Numerical strength: Out of a population of 5 million 6% are Swedish-speaking i.e. 296,435 according to the 1992 census.

Status: Alongside with Finnish, Swedish is one of the 'national languages of the Republic' (1919 Constitution). Citizens have a right under the Constitution to 'use either their Finnish or Swedish mother tongue in legal cases in court or before administrative authorities'. All laws and legal texts are drawn up in both languages and civil servants are examined for proficiency in both languages. The Language Act stipulates that a municipality is monolingual if the majority speaking the other national language is less than 8% or 3,000 of the population. It is officially bilingual if this percentage exceeds 8%. However, the number must fall below 6% for a bilingual municipality to become an official monolingual one.

The Aland Islands are an official monolingual Swedish-speaking region of Finland where 95% of the population speak the language.

Public services: The language can be used in communicating with all public service departments and they in turn must be able to provide services in Swedish.

Education: There are Swedish schools throughout the country and educational resources are allocated to these schools on the same grounds as to Finnish schools. In addition the national Board of Education has a separate department dealing with Swedish schools. Standard Swedish is the language used in all of these schools. Local authorities are responsible for pre-school provisions in the child's language be it Swedish, Finnish or Sami but this is not yet fully implemented. Primary schools can decide on which language to use as the language of instruction and this is always Swedish in Swedish-speaking schools.

Swedish medium upper secondary schools (Lukio) use Swedish in the teaching of all subjects but difficulties can arise due to the widely differing linguistic backgrounds of children attending these schools.

As regards higher education Swedish is the sole language of instruction at the Abo Academy University in Abo (Turku) catering for around 4,000 students. The University of Helsinki has 25 departments where Swedish is the language of instruction. The University of Technology Helsinki/Helsingfors is bilingual. Also in the capital there is the Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration and a College of Social Work and Public Administration. Local government officials attend the Swedish School of Social Sciences and Local Administration.

Miscellaneous: Four permanent Swedish-language theatres exist in addition to many amateur groups. Numerous institutions work actively to serve the needs of Swedish-speaking Finns. Organizations and societies for politics, culture, sports, agriculture, religion, science etc play important roles in the life of the Swedish-speaking community.

Media: Swedish speakers are catered for in radio and television by the Swedish section of the Finnish Broadcasting Corporation. A radio network covers all of the Swedish-speaking area while the Swedish-language television service broadcasts its programmes on the national channels TV1 and TV2. This amounts to some 545 hours a year in addition to over 200 hours of bilingual sports programming. Television in Swedish can also be received from over the border in Sweden. Radio services in Swedish are provided by the National Swedish-language radio service including news programmes in the language. There are also local stations providing all Swedish language radio services throughout the country. The Aland Islands since 1993 have their own television and radio service which broadcasts in Swedish.

The daily circulation of newspapers in the language is around 300,000 made up of some 30 daily or weekly newspapers and around one hundred other news publications in Swedish.

Miscellaneous: Approximately 200 books are published in Swedish each year and some publishing houses publish translations from Finnish into Swedish.

TATAR

Family: Non-Indo-European: Altaic family, Turkic group (North Western)

Region: Not limited to any one region

Numerical strength: Estimated at just under one thousand.

Status: No official legal status, however a 1992 agreement between Russia and Finland contains a clause where both states guarantee to support the preservation of the identity of people belonging to the Russian minority in Finland and the Finnish minority in Russia.

Media: No presence

Miscellaneous: Having arrived in Finland as merchant farmers at the end of the 19th century and later joined by other family members the Tatars became organized and successful throughout the business world. Having founded the Finnish Islamic Association in 1925 the Finnish Turkic Society was established in 1935 which organizes courses in the language.

France

BREZHONEG (Breton)

Family: Indo-European: Celtic

Region: Breton is spoken mainly in its historical region in the west, which comprises all of Finistère and the western part of Côtes-d'Armor and Morbihan. Breton speakers are also found in the cities of Rennes and Nantes, and in Paris.

Numerical strength: In France, no linguistic data are included in the census. However various polls indicate that about 450,000 people understand Breton, 300,000 of whom also speak the language.

Status: No official legal status.

Public services: Sporadic use of Breton is possible in dealings with the public administration. However this is has no legal basis and is left to the will of the civil servants. Administrative documents are not available in Breton and there is no legal requirement for civil servants to know the language. Only local and departmental administration have made efforts in recent years to introduce roadsigns and information signs in Breton in several towns (Kemper, Landerne, Karaez)

Education: Schooling (from pre-primary to secondary level) through the medium of Breton is organized by DIWAN, which also owns a teacher-training centre in collaboration with Occitan, Basque, Catalan and Alsatian schools. DIWAN is financially supported by local, departmental and regional councils and the French national educational system. About 2,000 children attend DIWAN schools and the association recently celebrated its 20 years of existence. Other schools offer Breton/French bilingual education with the same amount of hours allocated to both languages. This has been provided by public schools since 1983 and more recently by Catholic schools. These schools are attended by a further 2000 pupils and are facing constant growing demand. At the universities of Rennes and Brest it is possible to obtain a degree (Licence) in Breton. At the university of Rennes, students who have graduated in other disciplines (Licence level) can also obtain a MaÎtrise in Breton.

Media: The regional public television service broadcasts 90 minutes per week in Breton. The public service radio station broadcasts about 30 hours per week in the language. The number of associative radios in Breton is currently growing. In the written media, different associations publish magazines every month in Breton. A growing number of articles and supplements in Breton appear also in the main regional newspapers published in French.

Miscellaneous: A very large and diversified amount of books are published in Breton. A professional theatre company uses Breton together with other non-professional groups. Supported by regional and local councils, Breton cultural centres organize a growing number of activities. The Breton Cultural Council coordinates organisations involved in the promotion of the Breton language and culture (committee for a television, support to local radios...).

CATALA (Catalan)

Family: Indo-European: Romance

Region: Catalan is spoken in North Catalonia (Department of Pyrénées-Orientales) in the south of France.

Numerical strength: It is estimated that of a total of 363,000 inhabitants, about 200,000 people are of Catalan origin. About 165,000 people understand Catalan and 102,000 can speak it.

Status: No official legal status.

Public services: State services depend totally on the official status of French (article 2 of the Constitution since 1992: "the language of the republic is French") to prohibit the use of Catalan during official events. However, local authorities, among others the town of Perpignan have started to develop projects to promote the language (street names, municipal bulletin...).

Education: Catalan is offered as a subject in the private and public education sectors, but in a very discontinuous fashion. It is taught as a subject at pre-primary and primary level for 1.5 hours per week to 20% of children (i.e. 15,000 pupils). It is also taught as a language subject (second and third language) at secondary level in addition to being used as the language of instruction in private schools and in bilingual classes in some state schools. This applies to less than 1% of pupils (some 670 pupils from pre-primary to the end of secondary). Teacher-training for secondary level is guaranteed by the state, and entry is through open competition. As regards training for primary teaching there is none, and this therefore poses problems in the recruitment of competent school teachers. This is a very serious setback for teaching at pre-primary and primary level. Most of the pedagogical materials are produced in the Catalan-speaking autonomous communities in Spain, and in Andorra, and are subsequently adapted by the teachers to the specific conditions of North Catalonia. In third-level institutions the language is used as a medium of teaching in Catalan language courses, human science and economics (the Department of Catalan Studies, University of Perpinyà, from DEUG level to thesis level).

Media: The regional public television station (regions of Midi-PyrJnJes and Languedoc-Roussillon) broadcasts about 10 minutes once a fortnight in Catalan. These broadcasts are partially funded by the regions. Public radio provides a few minutes everyday in Catalan. Since 1981 a private radio station run by a voluntary association has been broadcasting entirely in Catalan.

The Catalan Governments Public radio and television service in Spain extend also to North Catalonia (2 TV stations and two radio stations, one general and the other 100% news and information) but there is little to interest Catalans from the North. There are no daily newspapers, but one weekly provides a page in Catalan.

Miscellaneous: There is one publishing house and various magazines which produce literary publications in Catalan. Publications from the Catalan-speaking communities in Spain are also readily available in Northern Catalonia.

Catalan is also spoken in Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, Valencia and a part of Aragon (Spain), as well as in the city of Alghero in Sardinia (Italy).

CORSU (Corsican)

Family: Indo-European: Romance

Region: Corsu is the native language of the island of Corsica.

Numerical strength: According to a 1982 survey, 96% of the island's inhabitants who are of Corsican origin (about 170,000 people, or 70% of the total population) understand Corsican and 86% regularly speak the language.

Status: No official legal status.

Public services: As the language has no official status, its administrative and legal role is minimal. It is occasionally possible for the public to use Corsican in its dealings with the administration and in court, because the administrative and legal officials themselves speak the language, though never in their official capacity. An active campaign by the Conseil de la Culture (the consultative council of the Corsican Assembly) has led to the creation of an increasing number of public signs in Corsican.

Education: Corsican is used on a voluntary basis by teachers at pre-primary level. At primary level the language can be taught three hours a week, and teachers are urged by the regional education service to integrate Corsican in their courses. Some attempts have been made by individual teachers to teach some subjects through Corsican. At secondary level Corsican is offered as an optional living language. The University of Corsica offers a course in Corsican Studies. Some of the lectures are in Corsican, some in French. Adult courses in Corsican are widely available throughout the island, as well as in some cities on the French mainland.

Media: The regional service of State radio broadcasts several programmes and 5 news bulletins in Corsican daily (between 6 and 11 in the morning) of 5 to 10 minutes duration. One private radio station broadcasts entirely in Corsican. The regional TV service France 3 has been making great efforts to increase hours in the language and has resulted in an increase in programming in Corsican from 20 minutes a week to two hours. The language can be heard daily in a news programme and through other various programmes. There is no daily or weekly newspaper entirely in Corsican. There are some French-language papers which carry articles in Corsican occasionally, but not systematically. Often Corsican is used in headlines in papers or magazines.

Miscellaneous: A limited number of books is published in Corsican each year. There are theatre productions in Corsican, but the theatre companies do not have great financial means. Each year the Mediterranean Film Festival in Bastia receives some low-budget entries in Corsican.

CREOLE

Family: The different varieties are based on Portuguese, English, Spanish, Dutch and French. 'Creole' stems from the Spanish term 'criollo' which was used in the 17th and 18th centuries to describe people of European ascendancy born in the colonies.

Numerical Strength: Creole is spoken by approximately 1.5 million people throughout France's four overseas 'départements': Guiana, Guadaloupe, Reunion and Martinique, all of which are regions outside of Europe. It is very often the native language of the Overseas' population, particularly in Reunion where 93% of inhabitants speak Creole and 83% use it daily.

Status: Creole is ignored by the institutions and receives little if any official recognition. The different varieties of the language are not included on the official list of regional languages in France. The Councils for Culture, Education and the Environment in the Overseas territories seek recognition of Creole as a regional language.

Media: The language has little presence in the main media. It is to be found throughout the private audiovisual media such as private radio stations in the various overseas 'départements', such as ATV in Martinique.

Education: The situation varies: in Reunion there is only one secondary school offering subjects on regional language and culture but the language has hardly any presence in teacher training colleges. In Martinique the language is more prevalent throughout the educational system.

Miscellaneous: Creole is used in everyday life by artists and those in the literary world. Music in the West Indies and Reunion uses Creole exclusively. Literature which up until recently was of the oral tradition is developing: writers in Reunion and the West Indies are now producing poetry, theatre and even novels in the language alongside with legends, proverbs and riddles.

French Creole is spoken by approximately another 8.5 million people in independent countries such as Haiti or the Seychelles, but essentially it is spoken in the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean.

DEUTSCH (German)

Family: Indo-European: Germanic

Region: Alsatian (Elsaesserdeutsch) a dialectal variant of German is spoken in two forms in Alsace. Rhenish Frankish in north Alsace, and Alemanic and its variants in the north and south respectively Platt, a Frankish dialect (Rhenish Frankish and Moselle Frankish) is spoken in Thionese or German-speaking Lorraine and Eastern Moselle. The written form of these dialectal variants is standard German.

Numerical strength: Recent surveys have shown that the use of the language is decreasing considerably. Of Alsace's population (1,625,000) about 60% speak the language, but in 1989 only 36% of those entering primary school still spoke it. The dialect is spoken mainly in north Alsace, in the Sundgau region, and in rural areas in the centre. In Thionese Lorraine about 50% of the 300,000/400,000 inhabitants know and use the dialectal variant of German, and about 20% of those are under 15. But surveys only rarely give an indication of the quality of the language spoken and the richness of its vocabulary.

Status: Neither variants of German enjoy any official legal recognition. In certain official texts reference is made to "Alsatian dialects whose written form is German. German is therefore one of France's regional languages."

Public services: All correspondence and all dealings with public administration takes place through the medium of French. However, since many public officials are themselves speakers of the language, it is often possible for members of the public to be served in the minority language on an informal basis. The department of Haut-Rhin has urged its public officials to use the regional language with the public. Some municipalities have introduced bilingual street signs, with the support of the region of Alsace.

Education: In nursery schools (3 to 5 years) the dialect is encouraged in the teaching of songs and nursery rhymes, in accordance with the State Education 'Deyon' Circular of June 1982, but this is seldom practised. At primary level (6 to 10 years) German is taught a few hours per week (one half-hour daily). This teaching, which stems from the good-will of teachers and families, does not often happen until the middle cycle (9 years). In 1990 parents came together and started up bilingual classes, 50% German, 50% French, (ABCM-Zweisprachigkeit) with help from local and European bodies. Since 1992, the education authorities have been opening bilingual schools with equal amount of hours for each language (13 hours French and 13 hours German). Few pupils are affected (less than 3% of the total number of children attending nursery or primary schools, i.e. 4,000 children in Autumn 1997). For such schools to open there has to be a demand from parents followed by approval from the educational authorities (Schools' Inspectorate and interested teachers) and from locally elected representatives. Special training courses are organised for teachers at teacher training college so that they are eligible to teach in these schools, however their number is limited. Many teachers do not speak German well enough to teach it in bilingual classes. Teachers are also brought in from Germany.

Media: The public television service, France 3 Alsace, broadcasts about one hour and a quarter per week in Alsatian (60 hours per year). The public radio service (Radio France Alsace) also broadcasts programmes in dialect and in standard German on the medium wave band 5 hours per day (approx. 600 hours a year of talk radio). Television and radio broadcasts from countries along the border (Germany, Switzerland and Luxembourg) can be viewed in Alsace and in the Moselle region as well. A law passed in 1945 stipulating the limitation of German to 25% of the texts of all periodical publications in Alsace was repealed in 1984. Bilingual versions-French/German-of regional dailies have a readership of about 15%. There are also bilingual weeklies and monthlies but there is no written media entirely in German. About 15% of the newspapers are effectively bilingual (French and German). There are also various bilingual weeklies. German language press from neighbouring countries is also available in newsagents.

Miscellaneous: A limited number of books are published in German each year. There are regular non-professional theatre productions in Alsatian which are well-attended by the general public. Alsatian and Moselle singers appear at festivals also. Cultural activities are funded by the local authorities.

German is also spoken as a lesser used language in Belgium, Denmark and Italy.

EUSKARA (Basque)

Family: Basque, isolate language

Region: Basque is spoken in the western region of Pyrénées-Atlantiques in the historical provinces of Labourd, Bas-Navarre and Soule.

Numerical strength: A sociolinguistic study carried out in 1996 and supervised by the INSEE (National Statistics Institute) showed 27% of the population as Basque-speaking. 9% understood it and spoke a little. Out of a total population of 258,000 this breaks down to 70,000 speakers and 23,000 who only understand the language.

Status: No official legal status, but in article 11 of the 1789 Declaration, the right "to speak and write freely" is expressed.

Public services: The language is not represented in public administration or in the judicial system. Some local authorities and public services still use it very inefficiently when dealing with tourists and providing them with information. Local communities are slowly but surely erecting bilingual road signs. There are some monolingual road signs in Basque.

Education: Since the Deixonne Law of 1951, the regional languages and cultures can be taught as optional subjects from pre-primary to third level. There are presently 4 models in effect:

Initiation (Model A): 1 to 3 hours a week;

Bilingual Education (Model B): 12 hours a week in public or private denominational schools;

Basque Immersion Teaching (Model D:) the progressive introduction of applied French to the Ikastola schools and community schools;

Teaching entirely through French (Model X): these remain the majority

The Numerical strength of pupils throughout all models during 1997/98 was:

Primary, age 3 to 11, 24,500 pupils: Model A: 11%; B:11%; D: 5% and X:73%

Secondary, age 11 to 18, 26,400 pupils: Model A: 2%; B:1.4%; D: 1.5%; X: 95%

At university level the Inter-University Department of Basque Studies in Bayonne has 116 students (1998) preparing for open teaching training competitions and for official qualifications from the Universities of both Pau and Bordeaux III. Courses in Basque language and literature are taught in these universities and in the University of Toulouse.

Coordination AEK is the coordinating body for classes and improvement courses in Basque for adults: 20 centres, 100 teachers and 1,250 students (1998). In 1996 the Centre pédagogique IKAS received official recognition and is responsible in the main for producing and distributing teaching material in Basque.

Media: French state television broadcasts only one to two minutes of Basque daily. State radio provides one hour of programming. Three community radio stations broadcast in Basque all day. Since 1994 there has been a weekly newspaper in the language. However one daily and two weeklies regularly publish articles in Basque.

Miscellaneous: Culture and language organisations responsible in the main for cultural activities, such as the Basque Cultural Institute founded in 1990, and 4 cultural centres deep in the Basque country, have had some positive experiences in relation to the language. In 1996 the Development Council for the Basque Country initiated a scheme for the language and culture approved by the State and by local groups who were asking specifically for the setting up of a Language Council. In 1997 the 'Département' of Pyrénées Atlantiques decided to set up a "public service for historical languages" therefore also for Basque. In addition Euskal Konfederazioa (Confederation of cultural associations for Basque) represents 60 associations which protect and develop the Basque language.

Relations with Euskadi/Navarre:

The French Basque Country (Iparralde) now benefits from a variety of media resources in the Basque language which come from the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre: television, radio, press, publications etc. A Aquitaine/Euskadi/Navarre Common Fund also provides for activities in the cultural field.

Basque is also spoken in the provinces of Vizcaya, Guipúzcoa, and Alava (which make up the autonomous Basque Country), and in the province of Navarra (Spain).

LETZEBUERGESCH (Luxembourgish)

Family: Indo-European: Germanic (Luxembourgish is one of the varieties of Frankish)

Region: Luxembourgish is spoken in the region of Thionville/Diddenuewen (Lorraine).

Numerical strength: There are no official figures on the number of speakers of Luxembourgish in Lorraine. It is estimated however that there are between 30 and 40,000 speakers (1/4 to 1/3 of the population of the region concerned).

Status: No official legal status.

Public services: No public presence.

Education: The language is hardly present in the education system. Luxembourgish is only taught in some schools and in one 'collège' on an experimental level. The main priority of the school authorities remains German. Courses in the language for adults are on the increase as a result of a huge demand linked to the development of work along the border (in 10 years, the number of workers from the border area of Lorraine employed in Luxembourg has quadrupled, and reached 31,000 in 1997).

Media: No presence

Miscellaneous: Various cultural associations exist in support of the language and its culture (poetry , music etc.).

Luxembourgish is also spoken as a lesser used language in the region of Arlon/Arel (Belgium). Three varieties of Frankish (Luxembourg, Moselle, and Rhine), are spoken in the administrative areas of Moselle, from Thionville to Alsace, by some 300,000 people (France).

NEDERLANDS (Dutch)

Family: Indo-European: Germanic

Region: Apart from the Netherlands and Flanders, Dutch (or the dialectal variant of the area) is also spoken in the extreme north of France (Westhoek).

Numerical strength: The language is spoken in the Westhoek by about 80,000 people (rough estimate) out of a total of 350,000 inhabitants.

Status: No official legal status.

Public services: No public presence for the language apart from a few bilingual roadsigns (local initiatives).

Education: Dutch is not used as a medium of teaching at any level of education. It is, however, taught as a foreign language in some isolated cases. Since 1981 it has been possible to request that courses be set up in nursery and elementary schools. At secondary level it is taught as an optional language in a few schools (three hours per week). Teachers are able to attend training courses organised by voluntary movements. Dutch is taught as a subject at a few universities, among others at Lille. Adult evening courses in the language are also offered in some towns.

Media: There are no television services in the language. There is one private local radio station which broadcasts in the two languages (about 10 hours per week in Dutch or the dialectal variant). There are no newspapers, or periodicals published in the language.

Miscellaneous: There is one library in Bailleul/Belle that keeps books in the Dutch language. This initiative is supported by the local town council.

OCCITAN

Family: Indo-European: Romance

There are three main varieties of Occitan: northern Occitan, which comprises Limousin, Auvergnat and Alpine ProvenHal, central or southern Occitan, which comprises Languedocien and ProvenHal, and Gascon.

Region: Occitan is spoken in the south of France, in an area comprising 31 'Départements'.

Numerical strength: There are no official data on the number of speakers. Of some 12 to 13 million inhabitants of the area, it is estimated that 48% understand Occitan, 28% can speak it, about 9% of the population use it on a daily basis, 13% can read and 6% can write the language.

Status: No official legal status. The languages of the French state are not recognised in the Constitution which stipulates in Article 2: French is the language of the Republic.

Public services: The language cannot be used by the public in their dealings with the administration, nor can it be used in court. No official documents are published in the language, and there are few public signs in Occitan..

Education: Occitan is used in some bilingual state schools as a medium of instruction at pre-primary and primary level. The language is also taught, albeit rarely, as a subject in French-medium schools. At secondary level, it is not used as a teaching medium, but is offered as an optional subject. At university level, Occitan is used as a teaching medium in studies of Occitan language and literature. The language is also taught as a subject. There are also adult language classes in Occitan. The Calendreta schools, are primary schools and a secondary school where all teaching is done through Occitan. Today, over 1,500 pupils are taught in these community schools.

Media: The public television channel FR3 broadcasts about 40 minutes per week in Occitan (on Sundays). These broadcasts are jointly funded by state television and the regional authorities. There are a number of private local radios using the language. One weekly is published in Occitan: La Setmana. A number of local French-language newspapers carry articles in the language once a week. There are also a number of magazines which appear regularly including one for children: Plumalhon.

Miscellaneous: A large number of books are published annually in Occitan. There are regular theatre productions in the language. There is one documentation centre on the Occitan language and culture. These cultural activities are funded by the local and regional authorities.

Occitan is also spoken as a lesser used language in some Piedmontese valleys in the Alps, in one community in the Liguria region, and in one community in the region of Calabria (Italy), and in the Val d'Aran in Catalonia (Spain).

OÏL

Family: Indo-European: Romance

The Oïl languages, different from French and which seek recognition at educational and institutional level are: Picard, Norman, Gallo, Poitevin-Saintongese, Champagne and Morvandiau.

Regions: Picard is spoken in the administrative regions of Picardy and Nord-Pas-de-Calais; Norman in Haute- and Basse Normandy; Gallo in the Eastern parts of Brittany and in the 'Département' of Loire-Atlantique (Pays de Loire region); Poitevin-Saintongese in the administrative regions of Poitou-Charentes and in the Vendée 'Département' ( Pays de la Loire region), in Northern Gironde (Aquitaine region); Champenois in the administrative region of Champagne-Ardennes; and Morvandiau throughout the Morvan region (in parts of the Nière, Yonne, Côte-d'Or and Saône-et-Loire Departments).

Numerical strength: There are no official data on the number of speakers.

Status: No official legal status.

Public services: The Oïl language varieties have no presence throughout the public service in France.

Education: Gallo is taught as an optional subject and is accepted by the educational authorities in Rennes as n optional subject in the Baccalauréat. As regards the other languages some secondary schools offer some unofficial hours. However there are some associations who take their own initiatives in promoting the languages in teaching. Optional tests are available for entry to the Institut Universitaire de Formation des maîtres (IUFM) and are organised by the educational authorities in Poitiers (for Poitevin-Saintongeais), Rennes (for Gallo), Amiens and Lille (for Picard), and Caen and Rouen (for Norman). Some teaching and research work takes place in the following universities: Poitiers, Rennes, Lille, Amiens, Caen, Rouen and Reims.

Media: From January 1985 to March 1986 FR3 Limousin-Poitou-Charentes broadcast a weekly 30 minute television programme. Some local radio stations throughout the Oïl regions also broadcast weekly programmes in a regional language. Some regional newspapers also publish or have recently published chronicles in Oil. Associations affiliated to the organisation Défense et promotion des langues d'Oïl (DPLO) publish in each region magazines or newspapers which are entirely or partially in a regional language.

Miscellaneous: A number of books are; published each year in addition to audio-visual material. Members associations of the DPLO are often the publishers. In 1992 the Union Pour la Culture Populaire en Poitou-Charentes-Vendée (UPCP) created a limited company Gestes Editions, specialising in regional culture and which put together a collection of around twenty titles 'Paranijhe', including 'Paroles d'Oïl', an anthology of the Oïl languages.

The Oïl languages are also spoken in Belgium (Picard, Champenois).

Germany

DANSK (Danish)

Family: Indo-European: Germanic

Region: Danish is spoken in Schleswig, mainly in the rural districts of Rendsburg/Eckernfoerde, Schleswig/Flensburg, Nordfriesland and the city of Flensburg.

Numerical strength: Danish is spoken by about 50,000 people living in these areas. They make up about 7.7% of the total population of the region. All of these speakers are bilingual: Danish/German.

Status: The bilateral declaration 'Bonner und Kopenhagener Erklaerungen' of 1955 protects the use of the respective minority language (German in Denmark and Danish in Germany). Furthermore, the constitution of Schleswig-Holstein (1990) safeguards the rights of the Danish and Frisian communities.

Public services: The bilateral declaration 'Bonner und Kopenhagener Erklaerungen' of 1955 stipulates that Danish may be used by members of the public in court and in their dealings with the administration. However, the official language of all German 'Laender' is German, and so is the language of all courts in Germany. The services of an interpreter are therefore used, if requested by Danish speakers. Official documents are not available in Danish, and public officials are not required to have a knowledge of the language.

Education: Teaching through the medium of Danish has existed in private schools since 1920, and since 1980 in public schools. The 'Dansk Skoleforening for Sydslevig' (Association of Danish Schools in southern Schleswig) is responsible for the organisation of Danish-medium education in the region. 85% of its finances is provided by the authorities of Schleswig-Holstein and the remaining 15% by the Danish government. There are several Danish-language nursery schools and primary schools. There is only one Danish-medium secondary school which prepares pupils for the German and Danish universities. Danish is also taught as a subject in German-medium schools in the area. 50% of the teachers come from Denmark. Teacher-training is offered at Danish and German universities. Danish can be studied at the University of Kiel. There are also many courses for adult learners.

Media: There are no radio or television stations broadcasting in Danish, but it is possible to receive programmes from Danish stations across the border. There is one mainly Danish-language daily newspaper which is published in Schleswig. There are also some periodical publications in Danish. Newspapers, and periodical publications from Denmark are readily available.

Miscellaneous: Books in the Danish language are published on both sides of the border. There are regular guest performances by Danish theatre companies in Schleswig. There are also libraries, cultural centres etc.

FRIISK (Frisian)

Family: Indo-European: Germanic

There are three main varieties of Frisian: West Frisian (Frysk) which is spoken in Friesland/Fryslan (Netherlands), North Frisian (Friisk) which consists of nine different dialects in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany), and Sater Frisian (Seeltersk) which is spoken in Niedersachsen (Germany).

Friisk (North Frisian)

Region: North Frisian (Friisk) is spoken in Schleswig-Holstein in the rural district of North Frisia (Nordfriesland). The language area comprises part of the mainland, the islands of Sylt, F`hr, Amrum and Heligoland, and the small islands of the Halligen archipelago. In fact, five linguistic varieties are spoken in North Frisia: the standard languages of High German and Danish and the non-standard languages of Frisian, Low German and Jutish (a Danish dialect). All Frisian speakers are at least bilingual and trilingualism is widespread. Quadrolingualism is also found.

Numerical strength: Of a total population of some 156,000 in North Frisia, about 50,000 consider themselves Frisian and about 8,000 people speak North Frisian.

Status: The 1990 constitution of Schleswig-Holstein protects and safeguards the rights of the Danish and Frisian communities.

Public services: Although North Frisian is not an official language, it is sometimes used at local council meetings etc. All written documents are, however, in German. Some villages have Frisian road signs and bilingual placenames are now permitted. Frisian house names are popular, especially on the islands.

Education: North Frisian is taught to over 1,000 children in nearly all schools in the language area one or two hours a week. The lessons are voluntary but are integrated into the official education programme. A school inspector is responsible for Frisian in education and a teacher helps in the production and coordination of teaching materials. The teachers usually have two annual meetings as in-service training which are organised by the local education authorities. In 1978 a chair for Frisian Philology was established at the University of Kiel, which was then advertised as a chair for North-Sea-Germanic Studies on the retirement of its first incumbent. The university also houses the Frisian dictionary centre (Nordfriesische W`rterbuchstelle). The University of Flensburg received a chair for Frisian Studies in 1988 which was then cut in 1996. There are various language courses for adults throughout the region.

Media: There are no television broadcasts in North Frisian. Radio programmes in the language can be heard for about three minutes per week on the regional station of public national radio. There are no daily or weekly newspapers in the language, but Frisian articles do appear in German-language newspapers, as well as in the Danish Minority's newspaper Flensborg Avis.

Miscellaneous: There is a modest amount of literature in North Frisian. Amateur theatre in the language is very popular, as are the numerous dance groups, and various choirs. A number of Frisian associations are culturally active. The is also a North Frisian Institute.

Seeltersk (Sater Frisian)

Region : Sater Frisian is spoken in the three villages of Ramsloh, Scharrel and Strücklingen in the Community of the Saterland in the Northwest corner of the Lower Saxon County of Cloppenburg.

Numerical strength : The emergence of the Frisian movement in the nineteen-eighties, the establishment of the Frisians as a recognised minority within the EU and the inclusion of Frisian in the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages have caused a rapid increase in the number of Frisian speakers within the Saterland. The present number of speakers exceeds 2,000 and is on the rise.

Education : The Saterland has five kindergartens, all of which provide instruction in Sater Frisian : two in Ramsloh, one in Scharrel, one in Strücklingen and one in the small village of Sedelsberg adjoining Scharrel.

At the primary school level in the Grund- und Realschule in Ramsloh, there is at least one hour a week of instruction in the first three grades. These classes are taught by two teachers and two pedagogical assistants drawn from the community. In the primary school in Scharrel, instruction is provided by one teacher and two pedagogical assistants, in Strücklingen by a single teacher and in Sedelsberg by two pedagogical assistants. Regular symposia are held to ensure the continuity and quality of instruction.

Status : In connection with its ratification of the European Charter on Regional and Minority languages, the Province of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen) has committed itself to the preservation and the expansion of the Sater Frisian language.

Public services : Assistance in dealing with boards, departments and commissions within the Saterland is provided orally in Saterfrisian and marriage vows may be exchanged in a civil ceremony in Sater Frisian. The use of Sater Frisian in public life is being increasingly expanded.

Religion : There is a Sater Frisian version of the Roman Catholic Mass and a Mass in Sater Frisian is held at least every two years in Saterland. More biblical texts in Sater Frisian are in progress.

Media : There are no radio or television broadcasts in Sater Frisian, but articles in and on Sater Frisian appear regularly in the Rhauderfehn General-Anzeiger and the Münsterländische Tageszeitung in Cloppenburg. German public and private television report regularly on events affecting the Sater Frisian language and culture.

Literature and culture : The Heimatverein Saterland / Seelter Buund is active in promoting theatrical productions in Sater Frisian and in the north Münsterland Low German which all Sater Frisians also speak. There are regular excursions to cultural events in the area and during these meetings and excursions, only Sater Frisian is spoken. More and more Sater Frisians are beginning to write texts in their own language, often assisted by the Arbeitsstelle Niederdeutsch und Saterfriesisch at the University of Oldenburg.

Frisian is also spoken in Friesland/Fryslân (Netherlands).

ROMANES (Romany)

Romany is the language of those belonging to the traditional and indigenous national minority of German Sinti and Roma. Long before the National Socialists came to power they lived as workers, employees, merchants, civil servants, or even as soldiers in the Emperor's army. They and their families, like the Jews, were integrated in village or town communities.

Region; Romany, an indigenous language in Germany, has developed through its use in the German-speaking area over the centuries as a minority language in its own right. It is different from the Romany languages spoken in other European states. The majority of German Sinti and Roma live in the capital towns of the older German federal states which include Berlin and surroundings, as well as in the larger conurbations of Hamburg, Düsseldorf/Cologne, and in the industrial centres of the Rhine-Ruhr, Rhine-Main and Rhine-Neckar. Some also live in larger numbers in regions containing several smaller towns situated in close proximity to each other; for example in medium and small-sized towns in East Frisia, North Hesse, the Palatinate, Baden and Bavaria. The area in which the language is used is thus spread over most of Germany

Numerical Strength: The number of German Sinti and Roma with German citizenship is estimated at 70,000.

Status: Protection of Romany in Germany is being given through the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In the German Federal Republic this is being ratified not only for Sorbian, Danish and Frisian but also for Romany for which there are no less than 35 protection clauses from Part III.

Public services: As all Sinti and Roma have German as a second mother tongue the language has no official status.

Education: German Sinti and Roma children grow up bilingually with Romany and German and as a rule master both languages. The National Socialists misused the Romany language in Germany in the course of their so-called ''scientific reserach'' aimed at registering the entire minority in order to plan and execute the ensuing genocide of the Sinti and Roma. For this reason, the minority is of the opinion that the language should be passed on solely within the ethnic group and should be thaught by teachers from within this group. The Romany mother tongue is cultivated within the family and within the community. Language courses for children are encouraged as well as in adult education provided by teachers from within the community in an effort to maintain and strengthen the minority language and cultural identity that goes with it.

Media: German Sinti and Roma associations, and their umbrella organisation the Zentralrat deutscher Sinti und Roma, are demanding membership for their representatives on the controlling bodies of both public and private radio and television services in order especially to end discrimination and to work against cliches and stereotypes with regard to the minority.

SERBSKI (Sorbian)

Family: Indo-European: Slavic

Region: Sorbian is spoken in a number of communities in the German Federal Lands of Brandenburg and Saxony, i.e Lower Sorbian in the district of Spree-Neisse, parts of the districts of Dahme-Spreewald and Oberspreewald-Lausitz as well as in Cottbus/Cho_ebuz (Brandenburg), Upper Sorbian in the district of Bautzen, in the district of Niederschlesische Oberlausitz (Lower Silesian Upper Lusatia) and in Hoyerswerda (Saxony).The Sorbs virtually always form a minority in a German majority population. There are only a small number of villages with a Sorbian majority.

Numerical strength: The number of Sorbs is estimated at about 60,000, 40,000 in Saxony and 20,000 in Brandenburg.

Status: The legal basis for the protection of the Sorbian population is provided in the German unification treaty (1990), the constitutions for Saxony (1992) and Brandenburg (1992), the laws protecting the rights of the Sorbs (Wends) in the Land of Brandenburg (1994) - an equivalent law is currently being prepared for Saxony - and a series of other laws, directives or legal acts.

Public services: In the authorities and administrations of the Sorbian communities Sorbian is permitted alongside German. However, it is not always possible for members of the public to use Sorbian, as the staff of these authorities frequently do not know the language. The Unification Treaty stipulates that the Sorbs' right to speak Sorbian when appearing in court in their own area shall be upheld. In practice, however, there are certain limitations to this rule. Only by way of exception are legislative texts and legal documents published in Sorbian. Public signposting is bilingual, but there has been a visible decline in this practice since unification.

Education: The Education Acts of the Free State of Saxony (1991) and of the Land of Brandenburg (1996) guarantee the possibility of learning the language as a subject, and also make provision for the use of Sorbian as a teaching medium in selected subjects in a number of schools. Pre-school education is available in the minority language. At present Sorbian is taught as a first language, as a second language and as a foreign language to pupils in primary and secondary schools. Teachers are trained at the Institute of Sorbian Studies at the University of Leipzig where the language is used as a teaching medium for degree courses in Sorbian, and is also taught as a subject. Adult courses are available in Bautzen and Cottbus.

Media: The TV station Ostdeutscher Rundfunk Brandenburg (ORB) has been broadcasting a 30 minute programme in Lower Sorbian once a month. Radio broadcasts exist in both languages (19,5 hours per week in Upper Sorbian, 6,5 hours per week in Lower Sorbian). Along with a few periodicals, a daily newspaper is published in Upper Sorbian and a weekly in Lower Sorbian.

Miscellaneous: Approximately 70 books are published annually by the Domowina-Verlag publishing house, of which about 48 in Upper-Sorbian, 15 in Lower Sorbian and 7 in German. About half of them are school and study books. A theatre group in Bautzen stages approximately five plays per year. There are also various museums and some cultural associations.

Greece

ARBËRISHTE, ARVANITIKA, SHQIP (Albanian)

Family: Indo-European: Albanian : Tosk dialects

Region: Arvanite is spoken in small isolated communities widely separated from each other in present-day central and southern Greece. Albanian is also spoken in communities in western Epiros.

Numerical strength: It is not clear how large the present number of Arvanite speakers is. The 1951 census counted about 23,000 Arvanites. However, these figures were underestimated. The language is only used on an informal basis.

Status: No legal status.

Public services: The language enjoys no public presence.

Education: The language is not present in the education system.

Media: The language is not present in the media, except rare broadcasting of Arvanitika songs on local radio. Broadcasts and papers in the official Albanian language for the Albanian immigrants do not interest Arvanitika speakers.

Albanian is also spoken as a lesser used language in Italy.

ARMÎNESTE, VLAHESTE (Aromanian/Vlach)

Family: Indo-European: Balkan Romance

Region: Vlach speakers are found scattered across Thessaly, Pindus and Ipiros (the mountainous regions of the Hellenic peninsula). Nowadays, most of the speakers live in adjacent cities.

Numerical strength: There are no reliable estimates of the number of speakers of the language. The 1951 census listed 40,000 speakers but the figures were probably underestimated. The language is confined to family and colloquial use.

Status: No legal status.

Public services: Vlach does not enjoy any public presence.

Media: Occasional broadcasting of Vlach songs on local radios

Meglenite Vlach/Meglenoromanian : this separate language is spoken by a few thousand people in Greek Macedonia (speakers can be found in the FYROM too).

MAKEDONSKI, BUGARSKI, BALGARSKI (Slav-Macedonian)

Family: Indo-European: South Slavic, Eastern subgroup

Region: During the first two decades of the century and during the years of the civil war (ended in 1949), a substantial proportion of Slav speakers left their homes to settle down in what is today Bulgaria and Macedonia (FYROM). Most of the areas which were then populated by Slav speakers kept Slav speaking groups, namely from the prefecture of Drama to the prefecture of Kastoria. The language is more dynamic in the prefectures of Florina and Pella.

Numerical strength: The official census of 1951 indicated that about 40,000 speakers of Slav-Macedonian lived in Greek Macedonia but the figures were underestimated.

Status: The language is confined to family and colloquial use and has no official recognition whatsoever.

Public services: The language has no public presence whatsoever.

Media: In some Slav speaking areas, it is possible to receive TV programmes from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) as well as Bulgarian and Macedonian radio programmes. A bilingual (Greek-Macedonian) bi-monthly magazine is currently published in Florina.

TüRKçE (Turkish)

Family: Altaic family, Turkic branch, Oghuz group (southwestern), European (Rumeli) dialects of Turkish

Region: The Turkish-speaking population of Greece live in Western Thrace. They are Muslims by religion. During the last two decades, a few thousand Turkish speakers (mostly gypsies) have emigrated to Athina and Thessaliniki urban areas. The vast majority of Muslim gypsies (who lived originally only in Western Thrace) have Turkish as their mother tongue. There is also a small Turkish-speaking community on the Dodecanessa islands.

Numerical strength: The 1951 census counted well over 90,000 Turkish speakers.

Status: Under the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), the Muslims of Western Thrace (viz. Turks, Pomaks and Gypsies) enjoy protection and rights. They are allowed to maintain their own religious institutions. Turkish in Western Thrace is the only de jure recognized lesser used language in Greece.

Public services: A translator is available at the courts and at Muslim polling stations.

Education: Muslims have their own elementary schools (co-funded by the Greek state) where around half of the subjects are taught in Turkish. There are two secondary schools in the same situation. There is also an Academy in Thessaloniki in which Muslims study in order to teach in these elementary schools (for the subjects in Turkish)

Media: There are some newspapers and weekly magazines and some local radio broadcasts in Turkish. The local public radio broadcasts news in Turkish and the municipality of Komotini offers one of the Turkish satellite channels. Almost every Muslim household is equipped with a satellite dish to receive Turkish programmes.

POMATsKI, POMASKI (pomaki)

Family: Indo-European: South Slavic, eastern Subgroup

Region: The Pomaks live in Western Thrace (Greece). In the past two decades, a few thousand of them have migrated to the prefecture of Attici. They speak the Rhodope dialect.

Numerical strength: According to estimates, about 27,000 Pomaks lived in Western Thrace in 1971.

Status: Under the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), the Muslims of Western Thrace (viz. Turks, Pomaks and Gypsies) enjoy protection and rights. They are allowed to maintain their own religious institutions. Pomak enjoys no official status.

Public services: Pomak enjoys no public presence in Greece.

Education: Pomak children attend Muslim schools where subjects are equally divided between Greek and Turkish. The use of the mother tongue is therefore relegated to family and colloquial interaction. A primer for the Pomak language using the Greek alphabet has been published by a private company.

Media : A monthly newspaper using the Greek alphabet is currently published in Komotini.

Ireland

GAEILGE (Irish)

Family: Indo-European: Celtic

Region: Irish is spoken throughout the twenty-six counties of the Republic of Ireland

Numerical strength: The 1996 census indicates that 1.43 million people or 43.5% of the population have the ability to speak Irish. These figures are of a self-report nature. Of that number 353,000 people speak Irish every day according to the census. The Irish-speaking heartland areas (the Gaeltacht) are widely dispersed along the Western seaboards and are not densely populated. They contain about 82,715 people of the total population of the Republic. Of that number 76.3% are Irish speakers according to the census.

Status: The Constitution of Ireland (1937) specifies that Irish, as the national language, is the first official language, and that English is also an official language. A separate government department is responsible for the Irish language. Two state boards function under its aegis, one for developing Irish-speaking districts and one for promoting Irish language throughout the country. Currently there is no official language act, although provision for Irish is made in several pieces of legislation. The Government is currently (1998) in the process of drafting a language act.

Public services: Everyone is legally entitled to receive service in Irish when dealing with public authorities, bur this is not always available on demand. Legally, all administrative documents should be bilingual. Anyone who wishes to receive a document in Irish, and who is presented with an English-only version, is entitled to demand an Irish version. Until 1973 a knowledge of Irish was required for entry into the public service. This is no longer the case. However, all public offices are legally required to have someone available who is able to deal with the public through Irish. It is possible to use Irish in court. All laws of the state and local authorities are usually published bilingually. Street and road signs are mostly bilingual. In Gaeltacht areas they are in Irish only.

Education: All pupils in state-aided primary and secondary schools study both Irish and English, and teachers in these schools must be competent in both languages. For the majority of the children English is the mother tongue and Irish is studied as a second language. Pre-primary education through Irish is available through a network of voluntary pre-school groups. All primary schools in the Gaeltacht areas are Irish- medium. There is also a network of Irish-medium primary schools outside the Gaeltacht. At secondary level, a number of state-recognised schools provide education entirely or partially through Irish. Irish is taught as a subject in all other secondary schools. The five teacher-training colleges are expected to provide sufficient education to enable all students to become competent in teaching through Irish, as well as in teaching the language as a subject. One teacher-training college, three universities, and two institutes of technology use Irish as a medium of instruction for some courses. Irish is a compulsory subject for entrance to all constituent colleges of the National University of Ireland and to all Colleges of Education. There is an extensive network of adult language classes in Irish.

Media: The state broadcasting service provides approximately 4 hours per week of Irish language television programmes. A separate television service in Irish has been established since 1996 and broadcasts approximately 90 hours of Irish language programming per week. One national radio service broadcasts entirely in Irish for about 77 hours per week. The other national radio services broadcast a total of under 3 hours per week in Irish. There is no daily newspaper in language. There are three monthly magazines and two weekly newspapers published in Irish. One national English-language newspaper and a number of local papers regularly carry articles in Irish.

Miscellaneous: Approximately 100 books are published annually covering a wide variety of genres. Irish-language theatre exists, but not on a regular basis. All public libraries have an Irish section.

There are many voluntary non-profit organisations working in various domains of language promotion and 21 national organisations are affiliated to a national umbrella body of national voluntary language organisations.

Irish is also spoken as a lesser used language in some communities scattered throughout the six counties of Northern Ireland (United Kingdom).

Italy

ARBEROR (Albanian)

Family: Indo-European: Albanian

Region: Albanian is spoken in certain towns in the Abruzzo, Campania, Calabria, Basilicata, Puglia, Sicilia and Molise regions in Italy.

Numerical strength: There is no precise statistical information about the number of speakers. Its use is very restricted and mainly oral, but the number of people who learn to write the language is increasing. The number of speakers is estimated at about 100,000.

Status: No legal status.

Public services: There are no public or legal services available in the language. Bilingual signs do exist sporadically.

Education: The language is not officially present in the education system, but it is taught in a small number of schools (pre-primary through secondary education) as an extra-curricular subject. It is also taught as a subject at a number of Italian universities. The Albanian government gives study grants to Italian students.

Media: Radio programmes in Albanian are broadcast by some private bilingual radio stations. There are no television programmes in the language. A few magazines exist in the language, but no daily or weekly newspapers.

Miscellaneous: A limited number of books are published in the language each year. The number of copies is very small, and as a result the books tend to be quite expensive.

Albanian is also spoken as a lesser used language in central and southern Greece.

CATALA (Catalan)

Family: Indo-European: Romance

Region: Catalan is spoken in the city of Alghero in the North-West of Sardinia.

Numerical strength: Catalan is spoken by about 20,000 people out of a total of 40,000 inhabitants.

Status: The Regional Law of Sardinia of 11.09.1997 refers to the protection of the language and culture in Sardinia and to Catalan in Alghero.

Public services: There is no public presence for the language.

Education: There is no use of the language at pre-primary and primary level. One secondary school teaches the language as a subject outside normal school hours. There are some courses for adults.

Media: There are some bilingual radio stations, as well as some bilingual newspapers and periodicals. A bimestrial l'Alguer is published in Catalan.

No further information available.

Catalan is also spoken in four Autonomous Communities in Spain (Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, Valencia and Arag\n), as well as in Roussillon (Pyrénées-Orientales) in the south of France.

DEUTSCH (German)

Family: Indo-European: Germanic

German is spoken in the region of Südtirol, as well as in various dialectal forms in a number of linguistic islands outside of that area.

SüDTIROL

Area : Following the Treaty of St. Germain (1919) the area of Tirol south of the Brenner was awarded to Italy. German is spoken in the provinces of Bolzano/Bozen and Trento.

Numerical strength: According to the 1981 census, there are about 280,000 Germans in the province. This amounts to 66.4% of the total population.

Status: The region of Trentino/Alto Adige (Südtirol) is governed by a Special Statute. The use of German was recognized in the Paris Agreement of 1946. The provisions of the Agreement were subsequently included in the special statute of 1948. A new statute of autonomy for Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol was drawn up at the end of the 60's and approved in a presidential decree in 1972. It gives equal status in the region to German and Italian.

Public services: Under the Special Statute, German has equal status with Italian. Germans are entitled to use their language in all dealings with police officers, public bodies and services which are located in the area or which have provincial responsibilities. Both languages can be used in the representative assemblies of the regional, provincial and local authorities. All administrative offices and bodies are required to use the language of the public in both oral and written communication. In the province of Bolzano/Bozen, government departments must use the German language in their dealings with Germans. If German places names are to be found everywhere, from a strictly legal point of view, their use is not reglemented in spite of the special statute. German can also be used in court.

Education: The Special Statute guarantees the right to education in the mother tongue for Germans in the province (from nursery to higher level). Italian is taught as a second language starting from the second year of the elementary cycle. The rule is that lessons in the mother tongue are taught by teachers who share this mother tongue. This principle also applies to the second language. Teachers who have German as a mother tongue can train in other German speaking countries; various university agreements and international standards allow the diplomas to be validated. In the autumn of 1998, a university will open in Südtirol which will allow teachers to study in their mother tongue in their own country.

Media: The public television service broadcasts German programmes for about 11 hours per week. The public radio service broadcasts about 90 hours per week in German. In addition, it is possible to receive TV programmes from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. There exist a large number of newspapers and periodical publications in German. German articles also appear occasionally in Italian newspapers.

Miscellaneous: The preservation of cultural and linguistic specificities of the German population of Südtirol seems largely secured. Everything seems to indicate thatthey are in a position to experience a revival.

OUTSIDE OF SüDTIROL

Numerous linguistic islands exist along the ridge of the southern Alps. The number of German speakers can only be estimated as no official statistics are available. There are a few thousand people in total, scattered over no less than eleven linguistic islands.

Area :

Walser is related to the dialect of Wallis in Switzerland and is spoken in some communities in the Alpine range of Piedmont and the Valle d'Aosta, viz. in the valleys around Monte Rosa (Valle del Lys, Valsesia, Valle Anzasca and Val Formazza).

Two small linguistic communities are located in the province of Trento/Trient, one in the Fersental/Valle dei Mocheni (Mòcheno) and the other in Lusern/Luserna(Cimbri). Both Cimbri and Mócheno are related to the Bavarian dialect.

There are other Cimbri-speaking communities in the Asagio plateau (province of Vicenza) and in the Lessini mountains (province of Verona).

In the Veneto area, there are Pladen/Sappada linguistic communities in which German has been maintained to a certain extent.

In the region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, German is also spoken on the small linguistic islands of Zahre/Sauris, Tischlwang/Timau and in the east, at the Austrian-Slovene border, the Kanaltal. Due to the proximity of the border, German is best preserved in this area.

Numerical strength: The number of speakers in these linguistic islands ranges from the smallest group with Cimbri in the province of Verona to the largest in Kanaltal. There is no doubt that the cultural and linguistic survival of the smallest of these linguistic islands is very uncertain and that some of them already have to face the risk of cultural extinction.

Status: Only Walser in the Aosta Valley benefits from measures to protect the language at school. The rest of the linguistic islands stretched along the Alps ridge do not benefit from any measure of protection.

Public services: No public presence, apart from occasional bilingual roadsigns.

Education: The languages present in these areas are not taught in public schools. It is possible to teach in these languages in the framework of extra school hours or as an experiment although this remains limited. The situation depends on the will, the commitment and the capabilities of the teachers and parents. Lessons offered to Walsers in the Aosta Valley is the only exception.

Media: In the Aosta Valley some bilingual radio stations broadcast partially in German (Walser). These broadcasts are financed by the central and regional administration in deference to the new situation. There are no radio or television programmes in Cimbri. However, there are a few periodical publications dealing with Cimbrian language and culture. Mbcheno/Fersentaler is not represented in the media at all. The language has no presence in the media in the other linguistic islands.

Miscellaneous: Publications in the corresponding language can be found in nearly all of these communities but they strongly depend on their financial possibilities.

German is also spoken as a lesser used language in Belgium, Denmark and France.

FRANCAIS - FRANCOPROVENCAL

Family: Indo-European: Romance

Region: French is spoken in the Valle d'Aosta, where it comes under the influence of Francoprovencal dialects spoken locally, and in the region of Piedmont in some valleys in the province of Turin (Val Germanasea, and the valleys of Cluson and Pélis) where it comes under the influence of Occitan.

Francoprovençal dialects are spoken in all of the valleys of the Valle d'Aosta and in some Alpine valleys in the region of Piedmont (province of Turin), viz. in Val Sangone, some parts of the Val de Suse, the Valle Cenischia, the valleys of Vij and Ala, the Val Grande, the Val Locana, the valley of Piantonetto and the Val Soana. A Francoprovençal linguistic island can be found in two communities in Pouilles: Faeto and Celle San Vito.

VALLE D'AOSTA

Numerical strength: The population of the entire Aosta Valley (115,000 inhabitants) is officially bilingual, French, along with Italian, being the official language of the 'Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley'. The number of those who use French daily, and of which there is little available statistical data, is however limited, the native population preferring instead Francoprovençal dialects and immigrants preferring Italian or its respective regional dialects.

Status: French is the official language of the Aosta Valley since 1561, with the exception of a short period of some twenty years (from about 1925 to 1945), when its usage was banned by the fascist regime. The special status of political/administrative autonomy which the Region has been enjoying since 1948 accords equal recognition to the French and Italian languages. Francoprovençal dialects do not enjoy the same official status, but their usage is very widespread and they are often the object of public initiatives aimed at their safeguard and ultimate expansion in the same vein as Germanophone dialects (Walser) which are spoken in three communes of the Lys valley (Gressoney-Saint-Jean, Gressoney-la Trinité, and Issime) and whose protection is guaranteed by a 1933 constitutional law including the status of autonomy of the region.

Public services: Under the 1948 Statute of Autonomy official documents can be drawn up in Italian or French, in accordance with the speaker's choice except for judicial documents which must be in Italian. Recruitment for regional administrative bodies is conditional on a proficiency test in both languages. Place names are exclusively in French and Francoprovençal, with the exception of the main town of Aoste which has "Aosta" as its Italian name. Francoprovençal dialects while having no official status are to a large extent used in public life (official events, meetings of town councils etc.)

Education: The 1948 Statute of Autonomy stipulates that all schools in the Region, during all stages of education (from nursery schools to secondary schools), must spend the same number of hours on the teaching of French and Italian. Some subjects however may use French as the language of instruction. These new regulations have not yet been fully implemented. Francoprovençal while not being taught at school does become part of certain initiatives organised by the regional authorities responsible for education; these include school activities aimed at promoting the use of the language amongst schoolchildren, training courses for teachers and language learning courses for adults.

Media: No local radio station or television channel transmits exclusively in Francoprovençal or French. The third public station, and some local radio and television stations with their own funding, produce some information and news programmes in French and Francoprovençal. Two French-speaking television stations (France 2 and French-speaking Swiss TV) are broadcast regionally by Italian state television. There are various weekly and other periodical publications in French which often include texts in Francoprovençal. In addition texts in French and Francoprovençal appear regularly in local periodicals published in Italian.

Miscellaneous: There is a strong musical tradition in French and Francoprovençal, local popular songs appearing in both languages. Public libraries keep books in Italian, French and Francoprovençal, while one specialist library specialises in FrancoprovenHal dialects and in dialectology in general. Quite a number of theatre groups perform in Franco-ProvenHal. They receive partial funding from the regional administration.

PIEDMONT

Numerical strength: According to estimates, French is spoken by about 4,000 people. The total population of the valleys where Franco-provençal is spoken by about 80,000 and it is estimated that about 28% of the inhabitants speak the language.

Status: French does not have any legal recognition or public presence and there are no regulations aimed at the protection of Franco-provençal either.

Public services: There is no real public presence for the language. Roadsigns, public notices and the like are only sporadically bilingual, and certainly not official.

Education: Since the end of the 1970s Franco-provençal has been used at nursery school level thanks to private initiatives. In some primary schools the language is taught and used as a medium of teaching on the private initiative of individuals. Teachers attend special preparatory courses organized by the universities and by local bodies and associations.

Media: Franco-provençal is not used on radio or television. There are no newspapers or periodicals exclusively in Franco-Provençal. There are, however, a number of bilingual periodical publications.

PUGLIA

Numerical strength: In 1977, according to estimates, Faeto was inhabited by some 1,200 people, 80% of whom had an active competence, and 100% of whom had a passive competence of the language. In Celle, all of the 350 residents had both active and passive competence in the language. Franco-provençal is the habitual means of communication at home and in the village. All the inhabitants also know the local dialect of Foggia.

FURLAN (Friulian)

Family: Indo-European: Romance

Region: Friulian (or Eastern Ladin) is spoken in the provinces of Udine, Pordenone and in parts of the province of Gorizia and of Venice.

Numerical strength: There are no official data, but it is estimated that of a total of 1,230,000 inhabitants in the Region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, about 550,000 people speak Friulan.

Status: The Regional Special Statute specifies that all citizens of the region should be treated equally, whatever linguistic group they belong to, and that their respective ethnic and cultural characteristics should be safeguarded.

Public services: There is practically no legal or public presence for the language, apart from a few bilingual signs.

Education: Friulian is used in some state nursery schools of the province of Udine in pilot projects of bilingual pre-school education. A programme of partial immersion in Friulian and Italian started in 1987 and is still under way following the pattern of "one person - one language". A recent regional act (April 1993) assigns funds to the promotion of Friulian in the primary schools of the public sector. The language has been taught as a separate subject in primary schools since the 1950s. In some secondary schools Friulian is taught as an optional subject during the first three years of the cycle. There is no training in the teaching of Friulian, but some cultural associations provide courses for teachers in collaboration with the University of Udine. Friulian language and literature are taught at the Universities of Udine and Trieste.

Media: There are no television stations broadcasting entirely in Friulian, but the third public radio channel does produce some programmes about the language and culture. There is one private radio station which broadcasts about 40 hours per week in Friulian. There are no daily or weekly newspapers in Friulian, but there are some periodicals in the language, as well as bilingual ones.

Miscellaneous: There are literary prizes for works published in Friulian. There are also a number of theatre groups using Friulian in their productions.

HELLINIKI (Greek)

Family: Indo-European: Greek

Region: Greek is spoken in the regions of Puglia and Calabria.

Numerical strength: There are no statistical data on the number of speakers. Estimates cite figures around 10,000 to 12,000 people.

Status: There is no official legal recognition for the language. However, in Calabria the regional statute does regulate the use of the minority language.

Public services: There is no public presence for the language apart from occasional bilingual roadsigns.

Education: In Puglia, Greek is not used in nursery schools, despite the fact that current regulations allow parents to request the use of the language at this educational level. At elementary level, the situation varies from one community to the other. In two towns the language has been taught since 1978 on an official experimental basis for 15 hours per week, from the first year onwards, throughout the elementary cycle. In Calabria, Greek is used sporadically in nursery schools, usually on the initiative of the children's parents. At elementary level, the language is taught as a subject three hours per week. At secondary level the language is occasionally taught as a subject. Adult courses in Greek are organized for residents who do not know the language.

Media: Some private local radio stations broadcast in Greek from time to time. There are no television broadcasts in the language. Two Greek-language newspapers are published in Calabria with the financial help of local administration. In Puglia various Italian-language newspapers occasionally carry articles in Greek.

Miscellaneous: The musical tradition in Greek is reasonably widespread. Various theatrical groups perform in the Greek language.

HRVATSKI (Croatian)

Family: Indo-European: Slavic

Region: Croatian is spoken in three communities in the Molise region (province of Campobasso).

Numerical strength: Croatian is spoken by about 2,000/2,400 people.

Status: No legal status.

Public services: No public presence for the language, except for some bilingual roadsigns.

Education: The language is not used as a medium of instruction in the schools, nor is it taught as a subject.

Media: No radio or television services, nor newspapers nor periodicals exist in the language

Croatian is also spoken as a lesser used language in Austria.

LADINO (Ladin)

Family: Indo-European: Romance

The term 'Ladin' or 'Rhaeto-Romance' refers to a group of neo-Latin varieties spoken in the central and eastern Alpine regions. Three varieties can be identified: Western, Central and Eastern Ladin. Eastern Ladin is dealt with separately under Furlan. Western Ladin is spoken in the Graubhnden and Engadin areas in Switzerland. Central Ladin is spoken in certain valleys of the Dolomites.

Region: Ladin is spoken in certain valleys in the Dolomites, Val Badia, Val Marebbe, Val Gardena, Val di Fassa, Livinallongo, as well as in Cortina d'Ampezzo (located in the provinces of Trento, Belluno and Bolzano/Bozen).

Numerical strength: The language is spoken by between 30,000 and 35,000, most of whom are bilingual, (either Ladin-Italian, or Ladin-German). The language has not yet been totally standardised but lately efforts have been made in this regard.

Status: The Ladin communities in the province of Bolzano/Bozen (Val Badia and Val Gardena) enjoy more legal and administrative protection than those in the provinces of Trento and Belluno. Ladin has been officially recognized since 1948 in the Statute of Autonomy of the Trentino-Alto Adige Region.

Public services: Over the last few years there have been numerous initiatives to make the Ladin language more visible (public signs, especially roadsigns). Following a 1988 regulation, Ladin was given the status of official language in the public administration of the Ladin valleys located in the provinces of Bolzano/Bozen and Trent. In the Ladin valleys of the province of Bolzano/Bozen some legal and administrative texts are published in three language i.e. Italian, German and Ladin. In addition a knowledge of Ladin is required in order to become an employee of the local administration offices.

Education: It is necessary to make a distinction between the situation in the province of Bolzano/Bozen where the language is officially recognized, and the situation in Trento and Belluno, where schools are for the most part monolingual (Italian).

Bolzano/Bozen: The Autonomy Statute (1972) stipulates that Ladin should be used in all nursery schools and taught in all primary schools in the Ladin valleys. A trilingual school system was set up in which pupils are gradually introduced to the use of both Italian and German as mediums of instruction, while Ladin is taught as a subject. At secondary level half of the subjects are taught through Italian and the other half through German. In addition, Ladin is taught two hours per week.

Trento: The presence of Ladin in school establishments is not as systematic and comprehensive as in Bolzano/Bozen. The language is used in the nursery schools. New regulations (1992/1996) will ensure the use of Ladin as the vehicular language for a few hours a week in all primary and secondary schools, in addition to being taught as a subject. No third-level institution outside of the valley uses Ladin as the language of instruction. It is possible, however, to study the Ladin language at some Italian universities, as well as in Innsbruck. There are also courses for adults.

Media: Since 1978, private bilingual and trilingual radio stations have been transmitting cultural programmes and news for one to two hours per week. Some programmes are also broadcast through the regional network of the public channel. Since 1988 the regional station of the public channel in Bolzano/Bozen transmits Ladin television broadcasts for Ladin communities in Bolzano/Bozen and Trento. The Ladin communities in Belluno are not served by these broadcasts. However, it is intended to extend the broadcasts to this area as well. There are no daily newspapers in Ladin, but both Italian and German language papers of the region carry weekly articles in Ladin. There is one weekly paper in Ladin, which is distributed in all Ladin valleys.

Miscellaneous: About 10 to 14 books are published annually in Ladin. Many theatre groups perform in Ladin. Museums are often geared towards tourists visiting the region. Cultural activities are partially funded by the provincial government. Musical activity is quite widespread with numerous performances by folk groups and modern music groups. Very popular amongst young people is the Ladinia Tour which takes place towards the end of every year.

OCCITAN

Family: Indo-European: Romance

There are three main varieties of Occitan: northern Occitan, which comprises Limousin, Auvergnat and Alpine ProvenHal, central or southern Occitan, which comprises Languedocien and ProvenHal, and Gascon.

Region: Occitan is spoken in 14 Piedmontese valleys in the Alps (provinces of Cuneo and Torino), in one community (Olivetta San Michele), and a few hamlets in the Liguria region (province of Imperia), and in one community (Guardia Piemontese) in the region of Calabria (province of Cosenza).

Numerical strength: There are no official data on the number of speakers, but estimates cite figures around 50,000.

Status: At national level, there are no legal regulations for the protection of the Occitan language. The region of Piedmont, however, approved two laws (in 1979 and 1990) to promote and protect the development of activities and cultural resources, and to protect the linguistic and cultural heritage of Piedmont.

Public services: There is no real public presence for the language. Occitan is used only sporadically in local placenames and roadsigns.

Education: Private initiatives have introduced Occitan in some pre-primary and primary schools, but the teaching of Occitan is not carried out in an official coordinated fashion.

Media: There are no more radio transmissions in Occitan. There is no television service in the language. There are a number of bilingual periodicals (Occitan/Italian).

Miscellaneous: There is a popular musical tradition in Occitan. One theatrical group performs in the language.

Occitan is also spoken in the south of France, and in Spain, in Val d'Aran, a Pyrenean valley on the French-Spanish border.

SARDU (Sardinian)

Family: Indo-European: Romance

Region: Varieties of Sardinian are spoken throughout Sardinia with the exception of the city of Alghero, where Catalan is spoken.

Numerical strength: The number of speakers is estimated at 1,000,000.

Status: Although Sardinia is an autonomous region with a Special Statute, the native language does not enjoy any legal recognition.

Public services: Many initiatives have been taken to make Sardinian the official language of Sardinia, but as yet it is not allowed to use the language in public administration or in court. Public signs and placenames are sometimes bilingual.

Education: Sardinian is used in pre-primary schools in so far as it is necessary to communicate with children. At primary and secondary level, the language has recently been introduced as a separate subject, on an official experimental basis. Teachers can attend courses organised by universities and cultural associations. Since 1970, there has been free language tuition for adults. This opportunity is not availed of regularly.

Media: Some private local radio stations include programmes in Sardinian in their broadcasts. No information on television services. There are a few newspapers in Sardinian with an average circulation of 3,000 copies. Bilingual newspapers and periodicals are also available.

Miscellaneous: Many theatrical groups perform in Sardinian. There is a strong musical tradition in the language as well. Literary prizes are given for works published in Sardinian.

SLOVENSKO (Slovene)

Family: Indo-European: Slavic

Region: Slovene is spoken in 36 communities in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, viz. in Val Canale (quadrilingual: Slovene, Italian, German and Friulan), Valle di Resia, the upper Valle del Torre, the Valli del Natisono and upper Collio in the province of Udine, the upper Collio, the Carso and also Gorizia in the province of Gorizia, as well as in the entire province of Trieste excluding the coastal strip between Trieste and Slovenia's border. In other words, the Slovenes of Italy live for the most part in areas which are bilingual, or even trilingual.

Numerical strength: There are no official data on the number of speakers. Estimates give figures ranging between 50,000 and 100,000 (out of a total population of 632,000).

Status: The legal status of the language differs considerably from one province to the other. In Udine Slovenes do not enjoy any clearly defined linguistic rights. In Gorizia the Slovenes are entitled to their own schools. The Slovenes in Trieste, however, receive the best treatment. Their linguistic rights are covered by the Special Statute attached to the London Memorandum of 1954. The Treaty of Osimo (1975) between Italy and Yugoslavia also gives protective measures to the Slovene minority throughout the territory of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.

Public services: The Special Statute annexed to the London Memorandum of 1954 establishes the right of the Slovene minority in Trieste to use their language in official contacts with administrative and legal bodies, and to receive a response in that language (either directly or through an interpreter). However, this is only put into practice in four communities of the province. In some communities in Gorizia the same rights are recognized as well, but not in Udine at all. Administrative and legal documents are available in Slovene in the same four communities in Trieste, but not always elsewhere in the province. Some towns in Gorizia also supply documents in the language. In the province of Udine some communes included the use of the Slovene language in their statutes. Public municipal signs are occasionally in Slovene. According to the penal procedure legislation minority languages can be used in court. This rule is generally applied for Slovenes. Recently (1997) a special law of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region allowed the minority language speaker to present applications and other documents to the regional authorities in Slovene, but the speaker is responsible for providing a translation.

Education: The situation of Slovene schools differs widely from one province to the other. In Udine there is only one private nursery school using the Slovene language as a medium of teaching. In Gorizia and Trieste public Slovene-medium nursery schools exist with state or municipal support. At primary level, several state-sponsored Slovene-medium primary schools operate in Trieste and Gorizia. In Udine there is only one private Slovene-medium primary school, not recognized by the state. Slovene is not taught as a subject in Italian-medium primary schools. At secondary level, the same dichotomy exists: in Trieste and Gorizia there are all types of state-sponsored Slovene-medium schools, whereas in Udine there is only one private school which was officially recognised by the State in 1997 and is subsidised by the State and the region. The language is not taught as a subject at Italian-medium secondary schools. Teachers receive their training at the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Their qualifications are recognized in Italy under the regulations of the Treaty of Osimo (1975). The language is taught as a subject at the universities of Trieste, Udine and Padua. According to an agreement between Italy and Slovenia, university qualifications obtained by minority speakers in Slovenia are recognised by the Italian State. The language is not used as a teaching-medium at third-level institutions in the area. A few adult courses in Slovene exist.

Media: There is a daily short (average less than half an hour) television programme broadcast by the public television company. Broadcasting covers the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia only. Public radio service broadcasts about 12 hours per day in the language. There are also a number of private Slovene radio stations. There are a number of weekly and one daily newspaper published entirely in Slovene. A number of periodical publications in the language exist as well.

Miscellaneous: Each year about 20 books are published in Slovene covering a variety of genres. There are regular theatre productions in the language. There is one central Slovene library in Trieste and some minor ones in other areas. There is also a Slovene research institute, some museums, and many cultural associations in the towns and in almost all the villages. There are also Slovene sport associations with thousands of members involved in various sports in clubs where the Slovene language is used. Finally Slovenes are very active in economic matters with their own banks and hundreds of small companies.

Slovene is also spoken as a lesser used language in Austria

Luxembourg

LETZEBUERGESCH (Luxembourgish)

Family: Indo-European: Germanic

Region: Luxembourgish is spoken throughout the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg.

Numerical strength: Strictly speaking Luxembourgish cannot be considered a minority language. It is spoken as a native language by nearly the entire Luxembourg population (about 290,000 speakers). However, a considerable number of foreigners (110,000 residents, 65,000 working along the border) neither speak nor understand Luxembourgish.

Status: The 1984 Language Act established Luxembourgish as the national language of the Grand-Duchy.

Public services: The 1984 Language Act determines that French is the only language of legislation, and that French, German as well as Luxembourgish can be used for administrative or judicial purposes. Official documents are usually not available in Luxembourgish. It is clear, then, that Luxembourgish is considerably marginalised in certain domains, especially in its written form. The 'loi sur les régimes de langues (Languages Regulation Law) of 1984 recommends employees in the Public Service to answer queries in the language they have been put i.e. Luxembourgish, German or French. On road signs, Luxembourgish is usually put alongside the official French version.

Education: Luxembourgish is used as a teaching medium at pre-primary level, and partly also at primary level. At secondary level, Luxembourgish is not taught as a subject, but used in practical courses. The language is not taught or used as a medium of teaching in higher education except in teacher training colleges where future pre- and primary school teachers a follow courses in teaching methods for Luxembourgish and Luxembourgish literature. Adult courses in Luxembourgish do exist.

Media: Television programmes in Luxembourgish are broadcast on weekdays (about two hours) and on Sundays (about 4 hours). A full radio service operates in the language all day. Most of the written press is in German. There are no daily or weekly newspapers in Luxembourgish, but some newspapers in French or German do carry articles in the language. There are a number of periodical publications in Luxembourgish.

Miscellaneous: Books are regularly published in Luxembourgish and a large number of theatre groups regularly stage plays in the language.

Luxembourgish, Luxembourgish Frankish or Moselian is also spoken as a lesser used language by at least 100,000 people in Belgium, France and Germany along the Grand-Duchy border in the areas of the former Luxembourg Duchy.

Netherlands

FRYSK (Frisian)

Family: Indo-European: Germanic

There are three main varieties of Frisian: West Frisian (Frysk) which is spoken in the province of Fryslan/Friesland in the Netherlands, North Frisian (Friisk) which is spoken in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) and East Frisian or Saterlandic (Seeltersk) which is spoken in Niedersachsen (Germany).

Region: West Frisian is spoken in the province of Fryslan/Friesland, and in a few border villages in the neighbouring province of Groningen.

Numerical strength: Friesland has more than 600,000 inhabitants, about 450,000 of whom are able to speak Frisian. For about 350,000 this lesser used language is the mother tongue. The number of Frisian speakers in the relevant part of Groningen may be about 3,000. A sociolinguistic study in 1994 revealed that 94% of the whole population of Friesland can understand the language, 74% can speak it, 65% are able to read Frisian and 17% write Frisian. Speakers of Frisian form a (great) majority in most rural areas, and a (small) minority in the towns, on the Frisian Isles and the two Low-Saxon municipalities in the southeastern part of the province.

Status: Friesland has been recognized as a bilingual province by the Dutch government for a few decades. In 1996 the European Charter for regional or minority languages has been ratified by the Netherlands including Frisian for 48 options in the third chapter about active language policy. In 1995 the right to use Frisian in the local and provincial assemblies was confirmed by statute. Since 1997 the law gives the right to use the Frisian language in courts of justice, though it was tolerated explicitly since the fifties. In 1980 Frisian was made a compulsory subject in primary school, in 1993 in the first years of secondary education.

Already in the seventies the possibility was created for pupils to choose it as an exam subject in secondary education and in teacher training. The provincial government and the councils of several municipalities have started a language policy to give equal rights to the language of Friesland. In the last decade the name Fryslân and several placenames are declared to be the only official names.

Public services: In general, Frisian speakers can use their own language in contacts with public authorities, as the provincial administration and a number of other bodies have made this a matter of policy. Documents issued by public authorities generally are in Dutch only; Frisian or bilingual ones are very exceptional. In courts of justice all parties, including defendant and witnesses, are allowed to speak Frisian. If need be, the court can employ the services of an interpreter. Courts of justice in Friesland accept civil actions brought in Frisian, but this can cause problems in case of an appeal to a higher court. Documents published in Frisian only are not legally binding. Public signs can be in Frisian, in Dutch or bilingual, depending on the choice of the municipality concerned.

Education: A small number of playgroups exist that are entirely conducted in Frisian. Since 1980 Frisian has been taught in all primary schools, both public and private. In about 80% of these schools, Frisian is also used to varying degrees as a teaching medium, alongside Dutch. There is no provision for primary education entirely through Frisian. At secondary level it is also possible to use Frisian as a teaching medium for some subjects, but this is infrequently done. There is no secondary schooling entirely through Frisian. The language is one of the six or seven exam subjects secondary school pupils can choose from. In the early eighties the subject was offered by 25% of all secondary schools on an optional basis, and about 5% of all pupils availed of this. From 1993 onwards, Frisian is an obligatory subject in the first three years of secondary education. The two teacher-training centres in Friesland have to offer Frisian to their students. They have the policy which stipulates that all students must attend Frisian classes. This qualifies them to teach Frisian in primary schools. Secondary school teachers are trained at the part-time higher vocational education college in Ljouwert/Leeuwarden and at the university of Groningen after having studied the language as a main subject at either the universities in Groningen or Amsterdam. In Leiden Frisian is a subsidiary subject. There is an extensive network of adult language courses in Frisian.

Media: Annually 31 hours of Frisian television is broadcast all over the Netherlands at Sunday. In the rest of the week the provincial television broadcasts one hour a day in Friesland. There is one provincial radio service which broadcasts about 80 hours per week in Frisian. There are also 20 minutes a week for both school radio and school television. There are no dailies, weeklies or monthlies totally in Frisian. Only in some articles Frisian is used. Just a few (literary) periodicals are published totally in Frisian. These, however, have a limited circulation.

Miscellaneous: There is a relatively sizable literary production. About 100 Frisian books of various kinds are published each year. There is one professional Frisian-language theatre which is very popular. Most towns and villages also have an amateur drama group. There are also a number of museums, libraries and cultural centres. In addition 20 CDs consisting of popular music are released every year.

Frisian is also spoken in Schleswig-Holstein and Niedersachsen (Germany).

NEDERSAKSISCH (Low-Saxon)

There are several varieties of Low-Saxon in the Netherlands. The main differences exist in the province of Drenthe, between eastern parts of the province of Overijssel, and between east and west in the province of Gelderland. The Stellingwerfs variety is spoken in the municipalities of Oost- en Weststellingwerf in Friesland and adjacent parts of Drenthe and the Northwestern part of Overijssel. Low-Saxon in the Netherlands is linguistically related to Low-Saxon/Low-German in northern Germany.

Region: Low-Saxon is spoken in the provinces of Groningen, Drenthe, Overijssel, the municipalities Oost- en Weststellingwerf in the southeastern part of Friesland and the regions of Achterhoek and Veluwe in the province of Gelderland.

Numerical strength: The total number of inhabitants of the Low-Saxon region is about 3,000,000. A study by the provincial radio station in Groningen showed that about 65% of this province was able to speak the provincial variety of Low-Saxon. The amount of speakers throughout the whole Low-Saxon region is estimated at about 1,800,000 (60%).

Status: The provincial authorities of Drenthe, Groningen, Overijssel and Gelderland, the local authorities of Oost- en Weststellingwerf and the provincial government of Friesland recognize that Low-Saxon has to be protected and promoted. They have developed a language policy to do so. In 1996 Low-Saxon was recognized by the Dutch government for the European Charter in the second chapter. The authorities in the Low-Saxon region opted for recognition in the third chapter. Low-Saxon is reasonably well understood by non-native speakers and therefore the attitude to the language is in general tolerant.

Public services: Citizens can use Low-Saxon in its spoken and written forms when contacting local and provincial authorities, though the authorities themselves use this variety from time to time only. The language is not generally use in court but its use is not forbidden.

Education: Only the Stellingwerf variety of Low-Saxon is a subject in primary education throughout the Low-Saxon municipalities in Friesland. In the other areas Low-Saxon is merely paid scant attention. This is also the case for secondary education in the whole Low-Saxon area. Language courses are organized by regional institutes. At academic level the language can be studied at the university of Groningen. Occasionally language courses are offered to teachers in primary education.

Media: The provincial and local broadcasting companies sometimes use Low-Saxon in general programmes but frequently in programmes about regional culture. The length of the programmes varies from one till five hours a week. The use in newspapers and magazines about general news is in some areas not unusual, but is quite common in prose, poetry and reflective texts about regional culture. The use depends on the existence and frequency of a cultural section in the various editions and therefore the frequency varies from once/twice a week till once a fortnight.

Miscellaneous: There is an important written tradition in Low-Saxon and a substantial production of books. Annually each area publishes about 10 books for the whole region, numbering 50 books in total. The production of CD's in the regional language is remarkable. For instance inGroningen each year 10 discs are launched and in Gelderland copies of 3000 are not unusual. Throughout the whole of the region there is a great variety of cabaret and theatre in the regional language. Frequently church services are given in the regional variety of the Low-Saxon language. In the Low-Saxon region there are a great number of interesting museums, libraries and cultural centres.

Spain

ARAGONES (Aragonese)

Family: Indo-European: Romance

Region: Aragonese is spoken in a few Pyrenean valleys.

Numerical strength: It is estimated that about 30,000 people are able to speak and understand the language.

Status: The Statute of the Autonomous Region of Aragon protects all the linguistic varieties spoken in the region. This includes Aragonese, and also Catalan (spoken in the area bordering Catalonia).

Today the presence of the language at institutional level is practically non-existent, nor is it used in local administration.

Education: Despite efforts made by several bodies the language has not yet been included in the school curriculum, not even as a subject. It is only taught in some schools in a very small number of town as voluntary extra-curricular subject.

Media: The language has a token presence in radio but is non-existent in television. In the written media it has a stronger presence with some magazines being printed in the language and appearing infrequently. A newspaper published in North Aragon includes a weekly supplement in Aragonese. Book publishing is increasing gradually and for some years now approximately ten books are published annually.

ASTURIANO/BABLE (Asturian)

Family: Indo-European: Romance

Region: Asturian is spoken throughout the Principality of Asturias, except for the area bordering Galicia where a natural mixture of languages (Galician and Asturian) occurs. Asturian is also spoken in the North and West of the Province of Le\n, but there is no official cooperation between the Asturian and Leonese regional governments as regards language promotion.

Numerical strength: According to a 1991 government survey, about 450,000 people speak the language (= 44.4%).

Status: Asturian is recognized and protected by the Statute of Autonomy of Asturias, but it is not recognized as an official language. In 1980 the 'Academia de la Llingua Asturiana' was created to establish a linguistic norm and to standardize the language. The Asturian government also set up an agency to support initiatives to promote the language.

Public services: Only some departments in the Autonomous Community Administration accept documents written in Asturian (eventhough they are obliged by law to do so). Local administration will accept them. Documents referring to linguistic matters are available in the language, other public documents are not usually. Language courses are organized for public officials, but a knowledge of the language is not compulsory to obtain a post. Asturian is rarely used in courts, legislative texts or public signs.

Education: According to a 1984 opinion poll 66% of the population would like to see the language taught in all schools. At present, the language is used in some pre-primary and primary schools as a medium of instruction. The language is optionally available as a subject at primary and secondary level. This type of schooling is partly subsidised by the regional government. At higher level the language is not systematically used as a medium of teaching. It is available as an option in the teacher-training colleges and at the University of Oviedo/UviJu. The language is also taught to adults, and these efforts are funded by the regional government.

Media: Television programmes in Asturian are practically nonexistent (a few minutes per day). Radio programmes are more frequent. There is one weekly newspaper in Asturian: Les Noticies Other newspapers publish some extracts in the language.. A few magazines are published in Asturian. Media initiatives are supported financially by the government.

Miscellaneous: Books and theatre productions in Asturian are other initiatives which are partly funded by the authorities.

Asturian is also spoken in the "Terra de Miranda" (north of Portugal).

CATALA (Catalan)

Family: Indo-European: Romance

Region: Catalan is spoken in four Autonomous Communities, viz. Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, Valencia and also in a part of Aragon.

Numerical strength: According to the 1996 census, 95% of the population of Catalonia understand Catalan, and about 79% can speak it. In relation to the Balearic Islands and Valencia, the source of data available is the 1986 census which indicates that 90% of the population on the Balearic Islands understands Catalan and 72% speak it, and that 74% of the population of Valencia understand Catalan and nearly 50% also speak it.

CATALONIA

Status: The Statute of Autonomy of Catatonia states that both Castilian and Catalan are official languages, but that Catalan is that country's own language. In 1983 an Act for Linguistic Normalization was passed and was recently replaced by the Act on Linguistic Policy of 1998

Public services: One of the aims of the Linguistic Normalization Act is to make Catalan a normal working language in public administration. Public officials and civil servants must have a knowledge of Catalan. However, each citizen has the right to use either Castilian or Catalan when dealing with the administration. Official documents are published in both languages. Catalan can be used in court, although this is often hampered by a lack of knowledge of the language among the judiciary.

Education: The 1983 Act stipulates that Catalan should be the normal language of education at all levels. However, if the language of the home is Castilian, children may receive the first years of their education in that language. These provisions are being implemented gradually; by 1990 about 30% of the pupils are educated entirely through Catalan. Teacher-training is available in the language. Catalan is the official language of the three Catalan universities, but any student or professor is entitled to use either Castilian or Catalan. There is also an extensive network of adult education in the language.

Media: Regional programme planning of the Spanish public television service is entirely in Catalan. The Catalan government controls two public channels with broadcasts in Catalan only. There are some private television channels which broadcast exclusively in Castilian. Various radio stations, both public and private, broadcast in Catalan only. Some stations use both languages. A number of daily and weekly newspapers and other periodicals are published entirely in Catalan. In addition, some Spanish-language newspapers carry articles in the language.

Miscellaneous: In 1991 about 4,500 new books were published in Catalan. Regular theatre productions in the language (either original pieces or translations) and a whole range of other cultural facilities and activities exist. The Catalan government also actively supports and sponsors the use of the language in trade and industry.

BALEARIC ISLANDS

Status: The Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands (1983) states that Catalan and Castilian have equal status on the islands. The Linguistic Normalization Act passed by the Balearic Parliament in 1986 aims at making Catalan the normal working language of administration and the normal medium of instruction in schools.

Public services: Catalan is the language normally used on signposts, policy documents, public information notices etc. Administrative forms and documents are available in both languages. It is possible for the public to address any public official in Catalan. In the regional parliament the majority of the representatives express themselves in Catalan.

Education: The ultimate responsibility for education lies with the national Ministry for Education and not with the regional government of the Balearic Islands. At present the language is taught in all schools and at all levels, but only for a limited number of hours. The number of schools where Catalan is used as a medium of teaching is very small.

Media: The regional service of the state television channel broadcasts a daily 30 minute news bulletin in Catalan. It is possible to receive the broadcasts of the Catalan and Valencian television channels on the islands. The presence of Catalan on radio is limited to a few hours a day. Several newspapers are published in the Balearic islands but only one is entirely in Catalan. There are some periodicals in the language, and some towns publish local papers in Catalan.

No further information available.

VALENCIA

Status: The Statute of Autonomy of the Valencian Community (1981) specifies that the official languages of the region are Valencian, the name given by the Statute of Autonomy to the Catalan variety spoken in Valencia, and Castilian. In 1983 a 'Use and Teaching of Valencian Act' was passed to encourage and spread the use of the language.

Public services: The language has a limited presence in public administration. It is used on signposts, policy documents, public information notices etc., often in conjunction with Castilian. However, the Valencian public administration itself makes little use of the language in its working procedures. It is possible for anyone to use the language when dealing with the administration, but this opportunity is rarely availed of.

Education: The Statute of Autonomy provides for the gradual inclusion of Valencian at all levels but this has not been carried out in practice. It also stipulated that pupils should receive their first instruction in their mother tongue. Parallel classes through Valencian have therefore been introduced in the schools. In 1990 about 5% of all schools had such Valencian 'streams'. At the universities both Castilian and Catalan are official languages and either may be used in any circumstance, although Spanish is the majority language.

Media: The use of Valencian in the audiovisual media is limited. In 1989 the regional government set up a public television channel aimed at broadcasting exclusively in Valencian. However, due to a lack of productions in Valencian a lot of programmes are still broadcast in Castilian. Some local radio stations broadcast in Valencian.

Miscellaneous: There are no separate statistical figures on the number of publications in Catalan emanating from Valencia. However, there are a few very active publishing houses in Valencia which publish periodicals in Catalan widely read in Catalonia and Valencia alike.

Catalan is also spoken in Northern Catalonia (France), and in Alguer (Italy).

EUSKARA (Basque)

Family: Basque (isolate)

Region: Basque is spoken in parts of the provinces of Bizkaia, Gipuzkoa, and Araba (which make up the Autonomous Basque Community), and in the Autonomous Community of Navarre (Nafarroa) as well as in the northern part of the Basque Country in France (Labourd, Basse-Navarre and Soule), Lapurdi, Behe-Nafarroa and Zuberoa.

Numerical strength: According to the 1991 census, about 25% of the population of the Autonomous Basque Community (around 515,000 people), and about 11% of the population of Autonomous Community of Navarre (roughly 50,000 people) speak Basque.

AUTONOMOUS BASQUE COMMUNITY

Status: The Statute of Autonomy (1979) states that both Basque and Castilian (Spanish) are official languages. In 1982 the 'Act for the Normalization of the Use of Basque' was passed, laying down numerous provisions on the use of the language in administration, education and the media. An office for linguistic policy was also created to coordinate all efforts to promote the language.

Public services: In theory, it is possible for any citizen to deal with the administration in Basque. Many administrative documents are published in both languages. The government and public administrations decide for which posts in administration a knowledge of Basque is required. Although constant efforts are being made, as yet, the language has not become the normal working language of the administration. Everyone has the right to use the language in court, and the judicial authorities have to provide a translator, if need be. This notwithstanding, court cases are held in Spanish.

Education: All schools in the Basque Country teach Basque in one way or another, varying between the use of the language as a medium of instruction and Castilian being taught as a subject (12 to 15% of pupils in 1990), both languages being used as mediums of instruction (18 to 20% of pupils) and the use of Castilian as a medium of instruction and Basque being taught as a subject (65 to 70% of pupils). It is possible to complete the teacher-training course entirely through Basque as well. Attempts are also being made to offer university courses entirely through Basque as well. The Basque government has also set up an institution to organize the teaching of Basque to adults and to support initiatives made in this field by other institutions (mainly AEK and IKA).

Media: There are several (about a dozen) private radio stations broadcasting in the language. The public radio station (Euskadi Irratia) which can be heard in the entire Basque-speaking territory (including Nafarroa/Navarre) and the French Basque Country broadcasts in Basque only. In 1982 a television service in Basque was set up by the Basque autonomous government, broadcasting for the entire Basque-speaking region and nowadays for the whole Basque Country on both sides of the border. This has had a tremendous impact on the revival and the standardisation of the language. Two daily newspapers publish 20% of their articles in Basque. There is one daily newspaper (Euskaldunon Egunkaria) published entirely in Basque, which is funded by popular subscription. It issues 15,000 copies per day and has financial support from the Basque government and from the government of Navarre. Well over 170 periodicals on various subjects are published exclusively in the language.

Miscellaneous: About 1,000 books are published in Basque each year.

NAVARRA (The Navarre Autonomous Community)

Status: The Statute of Navarra (1982) states that Castilian is the official language and that Basque also has official status in the Basque-speaking and in mixed areas. A 1986 language act defines the limits of these zones, allowing Basque to be used for official purposes in the Basque-speaking zones, and for some purposes in other areas.

Public services: The 1986 language act stipulated that all government decisions and resolutions be published in both languages, but this is not adhered to. A Basque Translation Service has been established within the administration, making it possible in theory for all citizens to use Basque in their dealings with the administration. Everyone has the right to use the language in court, and the judicial authorities have to provide a translator, if need be. However trials are held in Spanish.

Education: A Basque Teaching Service has been set up by the Community of Navarra. It subsidises and supports the teaching of Basque in all schools of the Basque-speaking zone and in other schools in Navarra where there is demand. In 1990, about 9% of primary school pupils were taught entirely through Basque, and about 7% through both languages. At secondary level eight schools offer education through Basque.

Media: The amount of Basque used on local radio stations and on the regional Spanish television is minimal, but broadcasts from the Basque Community can be received without much difficulty. There are half a dozen private radio stations broadcasting in Basque. Local newspapers hardly ever contain articles in the language. However, there is one daily newspaper (Euskaldunon Egunkaria) published entirely in Basque, which is funded by popular subscription. It issues 15,000 copies per day and has financial support from the Basque government and from the government of Navarre.

Miscellaneous: The number of books published in the language is steadily increasing, though readers have easy access to material published in the Basque Autonomous Community.

Basque is also spoken in Pyrénées-Atlantiques (France).

GALEGO (Galician)

Family: Indo-European: Romance

Region: Galician is spoken in the autonomous community of Galicia (provinces of Coruna, Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra), as well as in the Asturias/Galicia and Castilla-Leon/Galicia border regions.

Numerical strength: According to the 1991 census, 91% of the 2,753,000 inhabitants of the autonomous community of Galicia understand Galician, and 84% also speak it. However, the same census also indicates that only 48% use the language all the time. Of the 90,000 people living in the Asturias/Galicia and Castilla-Leon/Galicia border regions, about 45% normally express themselves in Galician.

Status: The 1982 Statute of Autonomy specifies that both Galician and Castilian are official languages. In 1983 a Linguistic Normalization Act was passed by the regional parliament to promote Galician in all domains of society. An office for linguistic policy was set up to put into practice the aims set out in the act. The regional government of Galicia also encourages the teaching and use of Galician in other regions where the language is spoken as a vernacular (e.g. Asturias and Castilla-Le\n). Some factions in the language movement desire a language union with Portugal and one written standard (Portuguese), while other groups (including the political establishment) wish to standardise the language as it is spoken in Galicia today.

Public services: As Galician is the official language, members of the public can use the language in their dealings with the administration. Public officials must have a knowledge of Galician. Official documents are published in both languages. It is possible to use Galician in court. Most representatives in the regional parliament use Galician during their debates. In the offices of the autonomous government (Xunta de Galicia) Galician is used almost exclusively for both oral and written purposes. The language is also used in the local administration of a large number of municipalities. Regional offices in Galicia of state administration (including the judiciary) only use Galician sporadically. Generally, public signs are in the two languages.

Education: According to the language act, Galician is the official language of all educational institutions. It stipulates that at pre-primary level and during the first two years of primary school the mother tongue of the pupils (either Galician or Castilian) should be used as the teaching medium. From the ages of 8 to 14 pupils should be taught through Castilian, with Galician being taught as a subject and used as a teaching medium in at least one subject. At present, all primary schools teach the language as a subject, but only 67% of the schools also use it as a teaching medium for one subject. The 1983 Act specifies further that at secondary level, the language be taught as a subject and used as a teaching medium in two other subjects. At present, nearly all secondary schools teach Galician as a subject, but only 30% also teach two other subjects through the language. Teachers who want to enter primary or secondary teaching posts have to pass an exam in Galician. Language courses are organized for practising teachers. Prospective teachers are trained to teach Galician and to use the language as a medium of instruction. At the universities Galician is rarely used as a teaching medium, except for courses in Galician Philology. It is also taught as a subject in other faculties. About 20% of the university professors use the language as a teaching medium. Adult courses in Galician exist primarily for public officials who need to have a knowledge of the language.

Media: A public television channel (controlled by the autonomous government) broadcasts about 100 hours per week in Galician. An additional 20 hours is provided by the regional station of the public television station of the state. A public radio station set up by the autonomous government of Galicia broadcasts entirely in the language. There are also some other radio stations, both private and public, with Galician broadcasts a few hours per day. There is no daily newspaper in the language. However, one weekly paper is published entirely in Galician, and there are quite a number of other periodicals in the language. Some Castilian-language newspapers also carry articles in Galician.

Miscellaneous: 1990 saw the publication of more than 500 books in Galician, catering for a wide variety of interests and ages. One theatre company, "Centro Dramatico Gallego" which performs in Galician is funded by the regional authorities, and presents about three plays per year. There are also about 30 professional theatre companies who receive sporadic funding from the authorities. Other cultural facilities include: museums, libraries, cultural centres etc.

OCCITAN

Family: Indo-European: Romance

There are three main varieties of Occitan: northern Occitan, which comprises Limousin, Auvergnat and Alpine ProvenHal, central or southern Occitan, which comprises Languedocien and ProvenHal, and Gascon.

Region: Occitan is spoken in Val d'Aran, a Pyrenean valley on the French-Spanish border, which is an administrative part of Catalonia. The language of Val d'Aran is a variant of Gascon, the language of Gascony (one of the three main varieties of Occitan).

Numerical strength: According to 1996 census, 64.85% of the inhabitants (6,000) can speak Aranese and 90.05% can understand it.

Status: Aranese is the official language of the Val d'Aran, together with Catalan and Spanish.

Public services: In 1990 the Conselh Generau (General Council) of Val d'Aran was reinstated by the Parliament of Catalonia and given certain administrative powers, among others the promotion of the language. The Aranese General Council uses the Aranese language regularly. As regards local administration usage varies from one town council to another.

Education: Aranese is the language of instruction during the first few years. Spanish and Catalan taking leading roles later (in principle each language represents a third each). At the end of the school cycle, however. Spanish is the majority language and Aranese is taught as a subject only.

Media: Aranese is limited to a total presence of one programme a week on the Catalan TV service and a short daily programme in the radio schedule of the Autonomous Community. As regards the written media one Catalan newspaper carries a weekly supplement in the language

Occitan is also spoken in the south of France, and in Italy, in some Piedmontese valleys in the Alps, in one community in the Liguria region, and in one community in the region of Calabria (Italy).

Sweden

MEANKIELI (Tornedalian Finnish)

Family: Non-Indo-European: Finno-Ugric, Finnic branch. A mixture of several varieties of Finnish with elements of Swedish, Sami, and Norwegian.

Region: Torne Valley in the North of the country.

Numerical strength: 25,000 to 35,000 speakers in the north and approx. 10,000 settled in the south of the country.

Status: Mention is made to Tornedalen Finnish in a Government convention to mark the particular situation of Finnish in Sweden and its distinction from other immigrant languages. The Government sees Tornedal as part of the original native population as opposed to being a national minority.

Public services: There is an agreement between the Nordic countries which allows Tornedalen Finns to demand services in Finnish in some public service areas such as law courts and hospitals. Few avail of the opportunity as most speak Swedish. In general however the language is confined to personal and social use but this is slowly changing.

Education: Tornedalians, like their Gypsy and Sami counterparts, have the right to home-language instruction where the language is part of their environment. As with all immigrant languages in Sweden a minimum of five pupils is necessary for home language instruction. Numbers of pupils receiving home language instruction is steadily decreasing and the language is in competition with other foreign languages in school. In general the municipal school authorities decide on the status of the home language in the school. The only Tornedalen-Finnish medium school is in Haparanda where half of the pupils come from Finland and the other half from Haparanda itself. Throughout other schools in the region the language is a subject on the curriculum like any other and is allocated between one to two hours per week at primary and secondary level. Two primary school in the towns of Palala and Changes make the language mandatory. It is also used in some pre-primary schools.

As regards third-level, Tornedalen Finnish can be studied at Lulea technical University and at Stockholm University where it is the medium of instruction. In other third-level institutions it is taken as a subject. Lulea Technical University also offers courses for trainee home language teachers and for pre-primary teachers.

Media: 6-8 hours per week on local radio and one half hour a week on national radio. There is no presence in television. A periodical is published four times a year with material in Swedish, Tornedalen Finnish and Finnish. Between 30 and 35 books are published in every year. The language is widely used on amateur theatre.

Miscellaneous: The Academia Tornedaliensis was founded in 1989 to function as a peoples' academy and a summer university. The Association of Swedish Tornedalians continues to struggle for legal recognition which would ensure economic and cultural support for the promotion of the language.

ROMANES (Romany)

Family: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian branch.

Region: Throughout the whole of the country.

Numerical strength: 12 to 15,000.

Miscellaneous: The Roma are considered by the government to be an immigrant group. They share certain privileged status in the school system.

SáMI (Sami)

Family: Non-Indo-European: Finno-Ugric, Finnic branch.

Region: In the North-West of the country.

Numerical strength: 15,000 to 20,000

Status: A Sami Parliament exists but it is less independent than the Sami Parliaments in Finland and Norway and the language has not received the same legal status as in the other two countries i.e. Sweden has not passed the Sami Language Act.

Public services: As the number of Samis in any municipality fails to extend beyond ten per cent of the population the language does not benefit from any special provisions extended to it by local municipalities. Nor is a Sami entitled to use the language with public authorities in any part of the country as Swedish is the only language used.

Education: There are six schools run by the State where children are taught the Sami language and culture. For those who do not attend these special schools the home language programme provides tuition in Sami language and culture. In addition the Sami School Board funds integrated Sami education in non-Sami primary and secondary schools. Up to 140 pupils take part every year. At upper secondary level it is also possible to take special Sami subjects where there is a demand. The University of Uppsala has been offering courses in Sami studies for over one hundred years and a Chair for Sami languages was set up at the University of Urea in 1975. Students can take courses in the language and culture and prepare themselves for teaching the language in schools in the future.

Media: Sami Radio provides both Sweden and Finland with Sami language programmes. In addition 4-6 hours are broadcast to Sweden as part of the general agreement between the three Nordic countries of Sweden, Finland and Norway. Television in Sami amounts to around 8 hours a year. Several newspapers exist in the language and publishers have being publishing books in Sami for schools since the introduction of the language into schools in 1978.

Miscellaneous: Samis of Finland, Sweden, Norway and Russia have their joint international organisation in the 'Sami Council' which endeavours internationally and in the territories of these four countries to promote Sami rights.

SUOMI (Finnish)

Family: Non-Indo-European: Finno-Ugric, Finnish branch

Region: Constituting around 4 % of the total Swedish population Finnish speakers are found all over the country. However, a slight concentration in larger cities and urban areas in general is noticeable.

Numerical strength: Between 220,000 and 300,000 (not including the Tornedalians). There are no Swedish statistics based on mother tongue or ethnicity so all figures in this respect are estimates.

Status: Finnish has since 15th December 1994 enjoyed a ''special status'' based on a parliamentary decision but since the country has not had any official policy towards minority languages or minority groups so far, it is often up to the local administration to decide on their stand on the language in matters concerning kindergartens, schools, care of elderly, etc.

Public services: Information in Finnish on essential services are still provided by some of Sweden's 289 communes that carry the responsibility for most everyday services (preschooling, schools, social services, care of elderly, children's day care, etc.) thus ending the stream of economic cutbacks on Finnish language services at the beginning of the 1990's. There is however no law protecting the Finnish language and therefore all the measures proposed by the government committee (set up 1995 and publishing its idea of a future minority language policy early 1998) were greeted with pleasure by the Finnish speaking community.

Education: There are Finnish-speaking classes and groups within the compulsory 9 year school system run by some of the communes. However, due to economic cutbacks in the early 1990's, private Finnish-speaking schools (incl. kindergarten and preschool groups) were established in different parts of Sweden. These schools number 12 at the moment and some 2,000 pupils attend them. It is calculated, however, that less than 25 % of those children eligible for school education have a chance to go to Finnish classes and this has raised fears of fast assimilation among the Finns in Sweden. One can study Finnish at university, but teacher training in Finnish has come to a halt. At the same time, many of the bilingual Finnish teachers have moved to other professions and fields since their classes have ceased to exist.

Media: From the beginning of 1998, a new digital, nation-wide Finnish radio channel was started and it plans to operate some 20-24 hours a day during 1999. Even the national TV-networks broadcasts between 2 and 2,5 hours a week in Finnish, including an 8 minutes news bulletin on weekdays (later in 1999 every day). The number of Finnish-language papers is decreasing rapidly. There are no dailies at all. Some of the institutions and organisations have their own magazines, published 4 to 6 times a year. Four or five Swedish dailies carry weekly columns in Finnish on local topics.

Miscellaneous: High hopes are attached to the new minority policy that the government has promised to establish. One section of the government committees was an all-parliamentary one which unanimously recommended the government to ratify the European Charter for the protection of national minorities (in addition to the European Charter on minority or regional languages). This would be the basis for a totally new minority policy in Sweden.

United Kingdom

CYMRAEG (Welsh)

Family: Indo-European: Celtic

Region: Welsh is spoken throughout Wales and by emigrants in other parts of the United Kingdom.

Numerical strength: The 1991 census indicated that there are over 500,000 Welsh speakers (19% of the population). The traditional Welsh heartland areas are the North and the West, where high percentages of Welsh speakers are found, even though in absolute terms these may represent a small number of people in some rural communities. Nevertheless, collectively they comprise two-thirds of the total speakers. A significant number of Welsh speakers is also found in the industrial valleys and coastal cities of South Wales, where most of the population of Wales is concentrated.

Status: The official status of the Welsh language is not enshrined in legislation although in the recent Parliamentary debate on the Welsh Language Bill the Minister told the committee that the language has equal status with English. The Welsh Language Act of 1967 made limited provision for the Welsh language to be used in the courts and in public administration. Subject to any rules of court the language may be spoken by any person in legal proceedings. The Act also gives Ministers a discretionary power to prescribe Welsh versions of official forms, subject to the proviso that in case of any discrepancy the English text shall prevail.

Public services: At present, a significant use of Welsh is made both by central and local government. Public officials are in many cases able to deal with members of the public in the language of their choice. Members of the public are also free to communicate with central government in Welsh, and if they do so, will receive a reply in the same language. An increasing number of bilingual forms are produced both by central and local government. In 1988 the Secretary of State for Wales established the Welsh Language Board to advise him on all things related to the language. In recent years Welsh has become increasingly visible on public notices, advertisements, cheque books, road signs, shop fronts, etc.

Education: Mudiad Ysgolion Meithrin, the Welsh Nursery Schools Movement is a voluntary body which seeks to develop and extend nursery education through the medium of Welsh as a preparation for the Welsh-medium primary schools. In 1991 it ran a total of 840 nursery play groups. The legal and organisational responsibility for primary and secondary education lies with the local education authorities (organized per county). As the sociolinguistic position of the Welsh language differs considerably from one county to another, the actual Welsh-language provision in schools varies accordingly. The growth and success of Welsh-medium education during the last two decades has been remarkable. Scores of rural primary schools in Northern and Western Wales teach mainly through the medium of Welsh as well as almost 80 designated Welsh-medium primary schools in more Anglicised areas. More than 50 secondary schools throughout Wales teach a substantial number of subjects through the medium of Welsh.

A significant step towards a more comprehensive and coordinated system of Welsh-language provision in education was taken in 1988, when the Education Reform Act was passed, establishing a National Curriculum and stipulating that Welsh shall in future be taught to all pupils in almost all Welsh schools. At third level, five constituent colleges of the University of Wales offer degree courses in Welsh language and literature through the medium of Welsh. It is also possible to take degree courses in several arts subjects through Welsh, and research theses may be submitted in Welsh in any field of study. Teacher-training is available through Welsh. There is also an extensive network of adult education in Welsh.

Media: The national radio service Radio Cymru broadcasts about 100 hours per week in Welsh. A few local radio stations also carry programmes in Welsh. The 1980 Broadcasting Act established the Welsh television channel S4C which broadcasts Welsh-language programmes about 30 hours a week. There are two weekly newspapers as well as a number of specialist monthly and quarterly publications in Welsh. English-language newspapers published in Wales often carry articles in Welsh, sometimes even specifically aimed at learners. There is a commercial market in records, cassettes and CDs ranging from traditional and classical to pop and rock.

Miscellaneous: There are extensive cultural activities in the Welsh language ranging from drama to pop, and from choirs to Eisteddfodau (competitive festivals). The Welsh Arts Council supports many Welsh-language activities including theatre, music and literature. The government subsidises the running costs of the National Eisteddfod, the annual Welsh-language cultural festival. It also funds the Welsh Books Council, which administers a scheme of grants to publishers to encourage the publication of books in Welsh through providing central services to all publishers in Wales (marketing, design, editorial, Numerical strength). On average, about 400 books are published in Welsh each year. Urdd Gobaith Cymru is a voluntary organisation with a membership of 47,000 children and young people. It aims to foster Welsh Christian citizenship by means of a wide range of cultural, physical and community activities at local, regional and national levels, including the annual Urdd Eisteddfod. Cymdeithas y Dysgwyr - the Conference of Welsh Learners - co-ordinates the bringing of Welsh learners and fluent speakers together through a network of local branches and residential activities. There is also a civil rights movement that defends the status of Welsh speakers in society.

GAEILGE (Irish)

Family: Indo-European: Celtic

Region: Irish is spoken by a number of families and communities scattered throughout the six counties of Northern Ireland.

Numerical strength: The 1991 census revealed that there are 142,003 people in Northern Ireland claiming knowledge of the language (this includes people who do not claim ability to speak the language). A 1987 survey indicated that 11% (about 100,000 people) of the population of Northern Ireland aged between 16 and 69 had some knowledge of Irish. Of this group, only 6% claimed to have full fluency, 84% never used Irish at home, 15% used the language occasionally and 1% claimed to use Irish on a daily basis.

Status: The UK government does not grant any official legal status to the Irish language.

Public services: There is no great public presence for the Irish language. There are limitations on the use of Irish in the provision of public services. No public service forms at all are available in the Irish language, although the Irish language community have lobbied for Irish or bilingual versions of such permanent items such as driving licences and certificates of births, deaths and marriage for many years. The government recognizes and accepts the use in official business of the Irish version of personal names and also accepts official correspondence in Irish (although the reply will be in English).

Education: The position of the Irish language has been recognized in the proposals for education reform in Northern Ireland. The curriculum provisions in the draft legislation provide that while all secondary schools must offer at least one of French, German, Italian or Spanish, they may in addition offer Irish, and pupils may choose any one of these languages to fulfill their curriculum requirement for language study. Up until now, Irish was taught as a subject only in a minority of schools (all Catholic ones). Only five schools use Irish as a medium of instruction. Three of these are state-supported, but the other two are financed by parents and local groups and are not yet officially recognized. Both Queen's University Belfast and the University of Ulster in Coleraine offer courses in Irish language and literature. One teacher-training college also provides for the teaching of Irish.

Media: The regional BBC station broadcasts annually about one hundred and fifty hours of Irish-language programmes on radio and three and a half hours of Irish-language programmes on television. There is one monthly periodical in Irish, and a weekly newspaper which is published in Belfast.

Irish is also spoken throughout the Republic of Ireland.

GAIDHLIG (Gaelic)

Family: Indo-European: Celtic

Region: Gaelic speakers are found in all parts of Scotland, but the main concentrations are in the Western Isles, Skye and Lochalsh, Lochaber, Sutherland, Argyll and Bute, Ross and Cromarty, and Inverness. There are also Gaelic speakers in the cities of Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen.

Numerical strength: The 1991 census indicated that there were about 67,000 speakers of Gaelic.

Status: Gaelic has no statutory legal status, although it is used in some committees by the Western Isles Council. It is also used by the Highland Council at its Gàidhlig Committee.

Public services: Members of the public can use Gaelic in their dealings with the Western Isles Council and to a lesser extent with the Highland Council. It is not a statutory requirement for civil servants or local government staff to have a knowledge of Gaelic, even when working in Gaelic-speaking areas. Some documents and forms are available in both languages as a token, rather than by statute. Under the Small Landholders Act of 1911 Gaelic may be used before the Land Court, but there have never been written proceedings in the language. Public and village signs in Gaelic are only used in the Western Isles, while bilingual signs are in use in parts of the Highland Council, and Argyll and Bute Council areas. Bilingual signs are also now being used by some government offices in the Gaelic-speaking areas.

Education: Education is the only area in which the use of Gaelic is regulated by legislation. The Education Act of 1980 stipulates that all education authorities in Gaelic-speaking areas should make provision for Gaelic education at all stages. 'Gaelic-speaking areas' is not defined in the Act, however. Pre-primary education in Gaelic is organized by the Gaelic Playgroup Association which is a voluntary body operating throughout Scotland. It enjoys some local authority and central government support. At primary level there are 55 Gaelic-medium units throughout Scotland. The schools which provide this service are all funded through local authority education budgets, assisted at the outset by special Government Grant (Scheme of Specific Grants for Gaelic). In the traditional Gaelic-speaking North and West the language is usually taught as a subject, and sometimes used as a medium of instruction for other subjects. In secondary schools Gaelic is used as a teaching medium in some subjects in Gaelic schools, but it is taught as a subject in approximately 40 schools. Teacher-training through Gaelic is available in two teacher-training colleges. One college offers courses in business, management, the arts, broadcasting and information technology through Gaelic. At the universities it is possible to take a degree in Gaelic and in Celtic Studies. There is also an extensive network of adult courses in Gaelic.

Media: Currently, there are about 300 hours of Gaelic television broadcasts per year (BBC and ITV), mainly funded by the Gaelic Broadcasting Committee. Gaelic-language radio programmes amount to about 45 hours per week. There are no daily or weekly newspapers in Gaelic, but articles in Gaelic do appear in local English-language papers, and a Gaelic monthly newspaper was launched in May 1998 by An Comunn Gaidhealach. There are some periodicals in Gaelic, carrying news items, as well as poetry, short-stories, book-reviews etc.

Miscellaneous: About 100 to 110 new books are published annually, covering both fiction and non-fiction and catering for pre-schoolers to adults. The arts in general are being developed through a network of bodies with strategic planning and coordination being led by Pròiseact nan Ealan (the Gaelic Arts Agency), mainly funded by the Scottish Arts Council. This body is funded by the public and private sector and covers all sections of the arts. There are several museums and cultural centres throughout the Highlands and Islands.

KERNEWEK (Cornish)

Family: Indo-European: Celtic

Region: Cornish is being revived in Cornwall.

Numerical strength: According to estimates, Cornish is spoken fluently by about 200 people, and with varying levels of fluency by a few thousand people.

Status: No official legal status within UK, but recognized by the government as a legitimate autochthonous language.

Public services: No public presence for the language except for bilingual roadsigns.

Education: There are some voluntary playgroups (pre-primary education) which use the language, but they exist without support. Cornish is not used as a medium of instruction at primary or secondary level, but it is taught as a subject in schools where an existing member of staff is willing and able to teach or where a volunteer teacher comes in. It is possible to take an official exam (GCSE) in Cornish at secondary level. No provisions exist for teacher-training in the language. At higher level the language is not used as a medium or taught as a subject. It is possible, however, to study historical forms of the language within Celtic Studies courses at universities in Wales and elsewhere in the UK. There are facilities for adults to study the language. The teaching of Cornish has been severely hampered by the dispute within the language movement over the written form of the language, but this is being resolved.

Media: There are no regular bilingual or Cornish television broadcasts. A local radio service broadcasts a fifteen minute bilingual programme per week. There are no daily or weekly newspapers in the language. One local daily newspaper carries one column in Cornish per week. Only magazines published by the language associations use the language exclusively.

Miscellaneous: The Cornish Language Board and the Cornish Language Fellowship publish textbooks, books for learners and collections of stories. Cornwall County Council also supports cultural activities related to the language.

SCOTS

Family: Indo-European: Germanic

Region: From the Border regions adjoining England throughout Dumfries and Galloway, Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, the Lothians, Fife, Stirlingshire, Perthshire, Angus, Aberdeenshire, Buchan, Moray and the Northern Isles of Orkney and Shetland Scots is spoken in a variety of dialects.

Numerical strength: The General Register Office (Scotland) in 1996 estimated the number of Scots speakers at 1.5 million. Other surveys have suggested higher numbers.

Status: No legal status or protection at this time.

Public services: Increasingly public services are being encouraged to deal with Scots by language activists.

Education: Scots is actively encouraged in schools by the 5-14 Curriculum Guidelines. An Advanced Higher (6th year secondary school) in Scots Language is now an option for pupils. The oldest Scottish universities - Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow and St. Andrews all now teach Scots.

The importance of the Scots literary heritage is increasingly being reflected within the curriculum.

Media: Scots now appears regularly in 2 major daily newspapers, sporadically in others and is increasingly being heard in the broadcast media in a wide range of programmes. Plans exist for the creation of a defined policy towards Scots in the major public service broadcasting organisation while the independent sector company is sponsoring a Scots language competition for schools.

Miscellaneous: The language is widely represented by the Scots Language Resource Centre and is promoted by a wide range of activist groups. The language is being increasingly studied within Scotland and abroad. A wide range of dictionaries is available and the first Scots spellchecker is imminent. An electronically assessable Scots database is being created by the SLRC. Several grammars of the language now in print including one for the Northern Ireland (Ulster) dialect of Scots

(Ulster) Scots is also spoken in Northern Ireland

ULSTER SCOTS

Family: Indo-European: Germanic

Region: Ulster Scots speakers are found in all parts of the north of Ireland but the main concentrations are in Counties Down, Antrim, north and west Londonderry, north and west Tyrone and spilling across the border into east Donegal in the Republic of Ireland.

Numerical strength: The census does not include a question on the Ulster-Scots language. From studies that were done in the 1960s it was estimated that there were 168,000 native speakers with 10,000 to 15,000 monoglot speakers and the rest bilingual. It is now estimated that this has declined to 100,000 with 5,000 to 10,000 monoglot speakers. Ulster-Scots survives mainly as a spoken language with very few speakers literate in the language. There are very few revivalist speakers.

Status: The UK government does not grant any official legal status to Ulster-Scots.

Public services: It is not used in any of the public services. Some government departments have accepted correspondence in Ulster-Scots but have always replied in English.

Education: Ulster-Scots is not accepted as a language subject in secondary education and is excluded from the curriculum. The universities also exclude it. None of the teacher-training colleges provide for the teaching of Ulster-Scots. In primary education, young children who use Ulster-Scots speech are subject to correction. Their language is not acknowledged but is treated as a low status rural dialect or bad English. It is the language of the playground and the home but not the classroom. There is no funding of any type from the education budget for Ulster-Scots.

Media: Ulster-Scots has no access to regional television or radio. None of the regional newspapers carry a Ulster-Scots language column. The magazine Ullans is published annually by the Ulster-Scots language Society for new writing in Ulster-Scots.

Miscellaneous: Up until 1993 Ulster-Scots received no public funding. Since then small amounts from the Community Relations budget have been made available for one-off projects. The Arts Council of Northern Ireland has supported the publication of new writing in Ulster-Scots since 1996. In 1997 two books were published. The Arts Council grant for 1998-99 was £11,000 and this resulted in the publication of some books in the language. Total public funding however has never exceeded £20,000 in any one year and in an average year is less than £10,000. In the absence of provision at home the Ulster-Scots language community look to Scotland, where the Scots language is taught in secondary schools and in universities, for trained teachers and language professionals. There are no full time paid posts for either teaching, research or promoting the language. All work is carried out by unpaid volunteers. A revival of interest in traditional Ulster-Scots music, song and dance, is also a help in reviving an interest in the language and its literature.

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