Names of Languages and Peoples

A simple list of names mentioned elsewhere on this site, omitting nearly all historical, social and political information.
You can find much more in the Dictionary of Languages: see also Dictionary of Languages Extra (added and expanded entries).
Please tell me if definitions need correcting!

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Abkhaz – language of northwestern Georgia; 300000 speakers, North West Caucasian — This name is used in English -- Reference: Abley

Abkhaz hunting language – special language of speakers of Abkhaz — -- Reference: Abley

Albanian – language of Albania Greece Italy and other countries; 5000000 speakers, Indo-European — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang 1, 2

Aragonese – language of Spain; 30000 speakers, Indo-European (Romance) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Aromunian – language of Greece Macedonia Albania; 200000 speakers, Indo-European (Romance) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Asturian – language of Spain; 450000 speakers, Indo-European (Romance) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Bambara – language of Mali; several million speakers, a form of Mandekan, Niger-Congo (Mande) — This name is used in English and French -- Reference: Faits de Langues

Bambara of Paris -- Reference: Faits de Langues

Basque – language of France Spain; 660000 speakers, language isolate — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang 1, 2

Bodo – Boro — This name is used in English

Boro – language of Assam; 1000000 speakers, Sino-Tibetan — This name is used in English

Breton – language of France; 500000 speakers, Indo-European (Celtic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Bulgarian – language of Bulgaria; 8500000 speakers, Indo-European (Slavic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

bumiputra – a Malaysian of Malay origin and language — This name is used in English of Malaysia -- Reference: Preshous

Camfranglais – language of Cameroon; a mixed language of schoolchildren with elements from English, French and indigenous languages — This name is used in French and English -- Reference: Kouega

Catalan – language of Spain France Andorra, EU official language; 6500000 speakers, Indo-European (Romance) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang 1, 2, 3

Cornish – early language of Cornwall; 300 speakers, Indo-European (Celtic) — This name is used in English -- Reference: Dictionary of Languages Extra and IFAQs; as European minority language see Eurolang

Corsican – language of Corsica — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Creole – language of Caribbean islands — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Croatian – language of Croatia; Indo-European (Slavic, a form of the language once usually known as Serbo-Croat) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang 1, 2

Czech – language of Czech Republic, EU official language; 12000000 speakers, Indo-European (Slavic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Danish – language of Denmark Greenland, EU official language; 5500000 speakers, Indo-European (Germanic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Dutch – language of Netherlands Belgium France, EU official language; 20000000 speakers, Indo-European (Germanic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

English – language of US Britain Ireland Canada Australia South Africa and other countries, EU official language; 350000000 speakers, Indo-European (Germanic) — This name is used in English -- On loanwords from Spanish see Ariza

English of Hong Kong -- Reference: James

English of Malaysia -- Reference: Preshous

Estonian – language of Estonia, EU official language; 1100000 speakers, Uralic (Finno-Ugric) — This name is used in English -- See Gabrielle Hogan-Brun in The Linguist vol. 43 (2004) no. 5; Douglas Jenks in The Linguist vol. 39 (2000) no. 5

Finnish – language of Finland Sweden, EU official language; 5000000 speakers, Uralic (Finno-Ugric) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang, Eurolang

Français des rues – French of Abidjan, Ivory Coast -- Reference: Faits de Langues

French – language of France Belgium Canada Switzerland Italy and other countries, EU official language; 70000000 speakers, Indo-European (Romance) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

French of Abidjan (Français des rues) -- Reference: Faits de Langues

French patois – languages of northern France — -- As European minority language see Eurolang 1, 2

Frisian – language of Netherlands Germany; 750000 speakers, Indo-European (Germanic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang 1, 2

Friulian – language of Italy; 600000 speakers, Indo-European (Romance) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Gaelic (Scottish Gaelic) – language of Scotland; 80000 speakers, Indo-European (Celtic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Galician – language of Spain; 3000000 speakers, Indo-European (Romance) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

German – language of Germany Austria Switzerland Belgium Romania and other countries, EU official language; 120000000 speakers, Indo-European (Germanic) — This name is used in English -- For hip hop slang (originally US English) as used in German see Leutloff. As European minority language see Eurolang 1, 2, 3, 4

German of Austria -- Reference: Markhardt

Greek – language of Greece Cyprus and other countries, EU official language; 11500000 speakers, Indo-European — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Hawaiian – language of Hawaii; 2000 speakers, Austronesian (Oceanic) — This name is used in English; an apostrophe, as in Hawai'ian, is politically correct -- Reference: Soguk

Hebrew – ancient language of Israel, language of Jewish scriptures and learning, revived; 3000000 speakers, Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) — This name is used in English

hip hop – music genre, source of an argot used in US English and other languages — This name is used in English and German -- Reference: Leutloff

Hungarian – language of Hungary, EU official language; 15000000 speakers, Uralic (Finno-Ugric) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Inuit – language or group of Canada Greenland Alaska; Eskimo-Aleut — This name is used in English

Inuktitut – language of north central Canada; 24000 speakers, Eskimo-Aleut (Inuit) — This name is used in English

Irish – language of Ireland, EU official language; 80000 speakers, Indo-European (Celtic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang 1, 2

Italian – language of Italy Switzerland Eritrea and other countries, EU official language; 60000000 speakers, Indo-European (Romance) — This name is used in English

Kanaka Maoli – a Hawai'ian of Hawai'ian origin — This name is used in English of Hawai'i -- Reference: Soguk

Kernewek, Kernowek, Kernuak – Cornish — This name is used in Cornish -- Reference: IFAQs

Ladin – language of Italy; 30000 speakers, Indo-European (Romance) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Lardil – language of Australia; few speakers, Australian (Pama-Nyungan) — This name is used in English

Lardil initiation languages – special languages of speakers of Lardil — -- Reference: Abley

Latin – ancient language of Rome, then of western Europe and northwestern Africa, language of Christian scriptures, international language of medieval and later Europe, scientific language of botany and zoology; Indo-European (Italic) — This name is used in English -- Reference: Wright, Dalby

Latvian – language of Latvia, EU official language; 1500000 speakers, Indo-European (Baltic) — This name is used in English -- See Gabrielle Hogan-Brun in The Linguist vol. 43 (2004) no. 5; Chris Moseley in The Linguist vol. 41 (2002) no. 1

Letzebürgesch – language of Luxembourg Belgium France; 300000 speakers, Indo-European (Germanic) — This name is used in Letzebürgesch -- As European minority language see Eurolang 1, 2, 3

Limón Creole – language of Costa Rica — This name is used in English -- Reference: Schovancová

Lithuanian – language of Lithuania, EU official language; 3500000 speakers, Indo-European (Baltic) — This name is used in English -- See Gabrielle Hogan-Brun in The Linguist vol. 43 (2004) no. 5

Low German – language of Germany Netherlands; Indo-European (Germanic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Macedonian – language of Macedonia Greece; 2250000 speakers, Indo-European (Slavic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Maltese – language of Malta, EU official language; 350000 speakers, Afroasiatic (Semitic) — This name is used in English -- See Joseph Eynaud in The Linguist vol. 43 (2004) no. 3

Manx – early language of Isle of Man; Indo-European (Celtic) — This name is used in English

Mati Ke – language of Australia; few speakers, Australian — This name is used in English -- Reference: Abley

Mischsprache – mixture of two or more languages — This name is used in German -- Reference: Omorokowa

Mohawk – language of North America; 2000 speakers, Amerind (Iroquoian) — This name is used in English

Murrinh-Patha – language of Australia; few speakers, Australian — This name is used in English -- Reference: Abley

Occitan – language of southern France; 2000000 speakers, Indo-European (Romance) — This name is used in English, French -- As European minority language see Eurolang 1, 2, 3

Polish – language of Poland, EU official language; 40000000 speakers, Indo-European (Slavic) — This name is used in English -- See Robert Rowe in The Linguist vol. 43 (2004) no. 3

Pomak – language of Bulgaria Turkey Greece; Indo-European (Slavic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Portuguese – language of Portugal Brazil Cape Verde Islands Angola Mozambique and other countries, EU official language; 155000000 speakers, Indo-European (Romance) — This name is used in English

Romany – language of Macedonia Romania Slovakia and many other countries; 3000000 speakers, Indo-European (Indic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang 1, 2, 3, 4

Russian – language of Russia Kazakhstan Ukraine Belarus Estonia Latvia and other countries; 175000000 speakers, Indo-European (Slavic) — This name is used in English

Russian of Finland -- Reference: Eurolang

Russian of Ukraine -- Reference: Omorokowa

Sami – language of Finland Sweden Norway Russia; 30000 speakers, Uralic (Finno-Ugric) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang, Eurolang

Sango – language of Central African Republic; perhaps 5000000 speakers, Niger-Congo (Ubangi) — This name is used in English and French -- Reference: Faits de Langues

Sardinian – language of Italy — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Sassenach – English language or people from a Celtic viewpoint — This name is used in English -- Reference: IFAQs

Scots – language of Scotland; 2000000 speakers, Indo-European (Germanic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang 1, 2

Slovak – language of Slovakia, EU official language; 5500000 speakers, Indo-European (Slavic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Slovene – language of Slovenia, EU official language; 2000000 speakers, Indo-European (Slavic) — This name is used in English -- See Alan Duff in The Linguist vol. 44 (2005) no. 2; as European minority language see Eurolang 1, 2

Sorbian – language of Germany; 100000 speakers, Indo-European (Slavic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Sowsnek, Sawsnek, Sawsnak – English — This name is used in Cornish -- Reference: IFAQs

Spanish – language of Spain Mexico Argentina Venezuela Colombia Peru Chile and many other countries, EU official language; 225000000 speakers, Indo-European (Romance) — This name is used in English -- On the language of advertising see Avila; on medical terminology see Ariza 1, 2

surzhik – mixture of two or more languages, such as the Russian-Ukrainian mixture encountered in parts of Ukraine — This name is used in Russian -- Reference: Omorokowa

Swedish – language of Sweden Finland, EU official language; 9000000 speakers, Indo-European (Germanic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Tasmanian languages – language group of Tasmania, none now spoken — This name is used in English

Tatar – language of Russia; 6000000 speakers, Turkic — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Tiwi – language of Australia; few speakers, Australian — This name is used in English -- Reference: Abley

Turkish – language of Turkey Cyprus and other countries; 50000000 speakers, Turkic — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

tyurmismy – words of Russian prison and criminal argot — This name is used in Russian -- Reference: Omorokowa

Ukrainian – language of Ukraine Russia Belarus Poland and other countries; 45000000 speakers, Indo-European (Slavic) — This name is used in English -- Reference: Omorokowa

Wangkajunga – language of Australia; few speakers, Australian (Pama-Nyungan) — This name is used in English -- Reference: Abley

Welsh – language of Wales; 500000 speakers, Indo-European (Celtic) — This name is used in English -- As European minority language see Eurolang

Yiddish – language of Russia US Israel and formerly of eastern Europe; 2000000 speakers, Indo-European (Germanic) — This name is used in English

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