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The Whole World Dictionary

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a commercial – the at sign (@) — Language: French. See: Traduire

abbacchio – suckling lamb; literally 'carried to market tied on a stick' or maybe killed with it — Language: Italian. See: Downie

achiote – annatto, Bixa orellana — Language: French. See: Furetière

acuyo – Vera Cruz pepper, Piper sanctum — Language: Spanish. See: Coe

Agape – the early Christian communal meal; 'Love', name of a woman slave, real or symbolic — Language: Latin. See: Dunbabin

agreste – verjuice, juice of unripe grapes — Language: Medieval Latin. See: Johann von Bockenheim

aguglia – garfish, Belone belone — Language: Italian. See: Douglas

Albanum – ancient appellation for wines from a district in Roman Latium (Lazio, Italy) — Language: Latin. See: Tchernia

ale – beer, originally as brewed without hops — Language: English. See: Jonson (twice)

alica, halica – emmer meal; a smooth porridge or pudding made from this — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

alise – serviceberry, Sorbus Aria — Language: French. See: Lorris

all the world – everybody, or everybody who matters — Language: English. See: Dalby

allspice – an aromatic, fruit of Pimenta dioica — Language: English. See: Coe

almond – fruit kernel of Prunus dulcis — Language: English. See: Woodforde

alouette – lark, skylark, Alauda arvensis — Language: French. See: Taillevent

ama – [epistemic particle] — Language: English of Hong Kong. See: James

amande – almond, Prunus dulcis — Language: French. See: Furetière

amandier – almond tree, Prunus dulcis — Language: French. See: Lorris

amygdala – almond, Prunus dulcis — Language: Latin. See: Johann von Bockenheim

anchovy – species of small fish, Engraulis Encrasicolus, often salted, preserved in oil and used as relish or flavouring — Language: English. See: Pepys, Jonson

anis – anise, Pimpinella Anisum — Language: French. See: Furetière, Lorris

anise – an aromatic, seed of Pimpinella Anisum — Language: English. See: Coe

annatto – a natural colouring, juice of Bixa orellana — Language: English. See: Coe

anthropeia krea – human flesh, meat of Homo sapiens — Language: Greek. See: Dalby

apestaart – monkey's tail; the at sign (@) — Language: Dutch. See: Traduire

apestaartje – the at sign (@), literally 'little monkey's tail' — Language: Dutch. See: Traduire

aput – snow on the ground — Language: Inuit. See: Dalby

apyros – inherently warming — Language: Classical Greek. See: Aischylos, Pindar

aqua rosacea – rosewater — Language: Medieval Latin. See: Johann von Bockenheim

ar – [interrogative particle; topic particle] — Language: English of Hong Kong. See: James

armagnac – appellation for brandy (spirits of wine) made in the Armagnac region of south-west France — Language: French. See: Powell

arobas – the at sign (@) — Language: French. See: Traduire

artichoke – flower head of Cynara Scolymus, cooked and eaten as a vegetable — Language: English. See: Woodforde

aspic – gelatine, often made from meat or fish stock, used as a coating for cooked meat or fish — Language: English. See: Wodehouse

at – horse, Equus Caballus; the at sign (@) — Language: Turkish. See: Traduire

at sign – the typographical symbol @ — Language: English. See: Traduire

atl – water — Language: Nahuatl. See: Coe

atún – tunny, Tunnus Thynnus — Language: Spanish. See: Avila

aubour – shrubby tree with yellow flowers, Laburnum spp. — Language: French. See: Voyage de Charlemagne

Auvergne – region of central France, well known for cheese — Language: French. See: Saint-Amant

avocado, avocado pear – oily fruit, Persea americana — Language: English. See: Fleming, Capote

azinheira – holm-oak, Quercus Ilex — Language: Portuguese. See: Borrow

babet – pinecone — Language: French. See: Rézeau

babki – money — Language: Russian of Ukraine. See: Omorokowa

Bacchus – name of an originally Greek god of wine and drunkenness; the pleasures of wine — Language: Latin. See: Byron, Dalby, Safran

bacon – salt pork, sliced thin, served fried or grilled or used in cooking — Language: English. See: Chan, Trollope, Burgess

bahasa – language — Language: Malay, Malaysian, Indonesian. See: Preshous

banquet couché – ancient iconographic theme of a man reclining to eat — Language: French. See: Dunbabin

Bärendreck – liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), literally 'bear shit' — Language: German of Austria. See: Douglas

batter pudding – mixture of milk, flour and eggs, baked as a pudding, often served with or containing cooked fruit — Language: English. See: Woodforde

bay – Mediterranean bushy tree, Laurus nobilis; its aromatic leaves and dried berries are used in cuisine — Language: English. See: Dalby

beer – alcoholic drink usually brewed from barley, stabilised and flavoured with hops — Language: English. See: Beames

Benin pepper – a spice native to West Africa, Piper guineense, resembling pepper — Language: English. See: IFAQs

betaceus – chard, beet, leaf of Beta vulgaris — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

beverage – a drink; drinks [in older English as collective singular] — Language: English. See: Byron

biscuit – biscuit — Language: French. See: Les Narbonnais

black – a colour; women's pubic hair, women's sexual parts — Language: English. See: 'I swear by muscadell'

blackberry – fruit of Rubus fruticosus and other species — Language: English. See: Carrington

blanchaille – whitebait, fry of the herring and sprat — Language: French. See: Powell

blancmange – jelly-like dish, typically white, formerly made with chicken, now with milk and sweet flavourings — Language: English. See: Woodforde

bois d'Inde – bay rum leaf, Pimenta racemosa — Language: French. See: Labat

Bollinger – champagne brand — Language: English. See: Wodehouse

bolota – acorn of holm-oak, Quercus Ilex — Language: Portuguese. See: Borrow

booze – alcoholic drink — Language: English, originally Cant. See: Middleton

bouilli – meat stew — Language: French. See: Smollett

bourg – big village; in regional French, hamlet surrounding the church — Language: French. See: Rézeau

bourgogne – wine (usually red) from the region of Bourgogne, France — Language: French. See: Nerciat

bovolo – snail; spiral-shelled shellfish — Language: Italian, especially Venetian. See: Jonson

bread – cereal flour combined with milk, kneaded into dough, and baked — Language: English. See: Trollope

bread and butter – sliced bread spread thinly with butter, a British staple — Language: English. See: Jerome, Beames, Wilde

Brie – appellation of soft cheese originating west of Paris — Language: French. See: Saint-Amant

broccolo – broccoli, Brassica oleracea Italica group — Language: Italian. See: Cornwell

brodo – broth — Language: Italian. See: Boccaccio

brúightín – champ, a traditional mashed potato dish — Language: Irish. See: Dalby

bruisy – champ; name derived from the Irish brúightín — Language: English of Ireland. See: Dalby

bulbus – grape-hyacinth, Muscari comosum, a food said to be aphrodisiac — Language: Latin. See: Ovid, Pliny the Younger

bully – meat stew — Language: English. See: Smollett

burle – cold north wind of the Massif Central — Language: French. See: Rézeau

buron – shepherd's hut in summer pasture — Language: French. See: Rézeau

butter – soft solid, made from the fatty part of milk when churned, used in cooking and as spread or dressing — Language: English. See: Greene, Dalby

buttock – fleshy protuberance at the base of the back; cut of meat from this part, also called rump — Language: English. See: Smollett

butyrum – butter — Language: Latin. See: William of Malmesbury

cabécou – small goat's milk cheese — Language: regional French. See: Graveline

cacao – the tree Theobroma Cacao; its seeds ('cacao beans' or 'cocoa beans'); the ground fermented seeds, used for food in various forms and then known as 'chocolate' — Language: English. See: Coe

cacao butter – vegetable fat present in cacao (raw chocolate) — Language: English. See: Coe

cacio – cheese — Language: Italian. See: Dalby

cacio cavallo – style of cheese made in southern Italy and the Balkans — Language: Italian. See: Dalby

cackling cheat – barnyard fowl, Gallus gallinaceus — Language: Cant English. See: Middleton

café – coffee, hot drink made with ground roasted seeds of Coffea arabica, a stimulant — Language: French. See: Powell, Safran

caille – quail, Coturnix Coturnix — Language: French. See: Taillevent

cake – baked product usually containing sugar, eggs and flavourings — Language: English. See: Jerome

calabash – fruit of Crescentia Cujete; gourd, fruit of Lagenaria siceraria — Language: English. See: Coe

campèche – logwood or campeachy wood, Haematoxylon campechianum — Language: French. See: Furetière

canela – cinnamon, the aromatic inner bark of Cinnamomum verum; sometimes, the bark of other related species — Language: Spanish. See: Cieza de Leon

canelo – cinnamon tree, Cinnamomum verum; also, in the 16th century, an Ecuadorean tree (perhaps Ocotea pretiosa or a relative) once believed to be a source of cinnamon — Language: Spanish. See: Cieza de Leon

cannelle – cinnamon and cassia, Cinnamomum verum and other species — Language: French. See: Furetière, Lorris

caper – aromatic flower-bud of Capparis spinosa, preserved in vinegar — Language: English. See: Woodforde

cappellini primavera please suggest a definition! — Language: Italian. See: Cornwell

cappone – capon (castrated male of Gallus gallinaceus) — Language: Italian. See: Boccaccio

caprea – roe deer, Capreolus Capreolus — Language: Latin. See: Bede

cardamom – an aromatic, the dried fruit of Elettaria Cardamomum — Language: English. See: Wilkins and others and the IFAQs

carrageenan – jelly extracted from Irish moss, a species which grows in abundance at Carrigeen near Waterford, Ireland — Language: English. See: Seither

cas, – cheese — Language: Romanian. See: Dalby

caseus – cheese — Language: Latin. See: Platina, Dalby

cassava – plant with tuberous root, Manihot spp. — Language: English. See: Ariza

cassis – blackcurrant, Ribes nigrum; liqueur flavoured with blackcurrants — Language: French. See: Connolly

caviare, caviar – salt roe of the sturgeon, Acipenser and Huso spp. — Language: English. See: Jonson, Wodehouse

cena – dinner, evening meal; the Last Supper — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

cerebrum – brain — Language: Latin. See: Pliny

Ceres – the Roman goddess of crops, especially cereals, and vegetable fertility — Language: Latin. See: Byron

cerevisia, cervisa – ale — Language: Latin of Gaul. See: Marcellus

cerise – cherry, Prunus cerasus — Language: French. See: Lorris

cervus – red deer, Cervus Elaphus — Language: Latin. See: Bede

chablis – dry white wine from the country around Chablis in eastern France — Language: French. See: Snow

chair – flesh, meat — Language: French. See: Les Narbonnais

Chambertin – appellation of Burgundy grand cru wines — Language: French. See: Zola

champ – traditional dish of mashed potato with leeks or onions, served with melted butter — Language: English of Ireland. See: Dalby

champ potato – champ — Language: chefs' English. See: Dalby

champagne – sparkling wine from the Champagne region in France — Language: French. See: Safran, Nerciat, Wodehouse, Greene

chapon – capon, castrated male of Gallus gallinaceus — Language: French. See: Villon

charme – hornbeam, Carpinus Betulus — Language: French. See: Lorris

châtaigne – chestnut, Castanea sativa — Language: French. See: Lorris

Château Léoville – appellation of Saint-Julien cru classé wines — Language: French. See: Zola

cheese – curd of milk, dried and matured, used as food — Language: English. See: Greene, Pepys, Rankin

cheesecake – confection of which cheese or cream cheese is a major ingredient — Language: English. See: Jonson

chêne – oak, Quercus spp. — Language: French. See: Lorris

cherry-laurel – bushy tree (Prunus laurocerasus) often grown in hedges, related to plum and cherry; its leaves resemble bay or laurel — Language: English. See: Dalby

Cheshire – an English cheese, much liked from the 16th century onwards but not mentioned in Domesday Book — Language: English. See: IFAQs

chestnut – the tree Castanea sativa, native to Anatolia and southeastern Europe; its fruit, the seed kernel of which is edible after cooking; the similar but inedible fruit of the horse-chestnut, Aesculus Hippocastanum — Language: English. See: Dickens

chevaucher – to mount (a horse, or [in the case of the Carmelite monks satirised by Villon] a woman) — Language: French. See: Villon

chicken – young of barnyard fowl, Gallus gallinaceus; meat of this species — Language: English. See: Lear, Woodforde

chicken Jeannette please suggest a definition! — Language: English. See: Wodehouse

chicken Maryland – recipe for chicken, fried in breadcrumbs, served with fried bananas and corn (maize) fritters — Language: English of United States. See: Greene

chilli – chilli (peppers), Capsicum annuum — Language: Nahuatl. ee: Furetière

chilli – an aromatic, fruit of hot varieties of Capsicum annuum and of Capsicum frutescens, known in the United States as peppers or red pepper — Language: English. See: Coe

chiocciola – snail; the at sign (@) — Language: Italian. See: Traduire

chips – cut pieces of potato, deep-fried (otherwise potato chips, known in the United States as fries or French fries) — Language: English. See: Dickens, Capote

chive – aromatic vegetable, Allium Schoenoprasum — Language: English. See: Dalby

chocol – hot — Language: Maya. See: Coe

chocolat – chocolate, hot drink and food made from Theobroma Cacao, a stimulant, said to be aphrodisiac — Language: French. See: Safran, Furetière, Mirabeau

chocolate – ground fermented seeds of Theobroma Cacao, variously used as hot drink or as food — Language: English. See: Pepys, Coe

chocolate sauce – sauce whose main ingredient is chocolate — Language: English. See: Capote

chocolatl – chocolate, hot drink made from seeds of Theobroma Cacao; literally 'hot water' — Language: Nahuatl. See: Coe

chutney – a relish based on fruits and vegetables cooked with sugar and spices — Language: English. See: Field

cider syllabub – mixture of cream with sugar and cider, eaten as dessert — Language: English. See: Jonson

cinnamon – an aromatic, inner bark of Cinnamomum verum — Language: English. See: Coe, Byron

ciprès – cypress, Cupressus sempervirens — Language: French. See: Lorris

citoaut – zedoary, Curcuma Zedoaria — Language: Old French. See: Lorris

claret – in medieval times, a spiced red wine; a light red wine from the Bordeaux region (France); in modern English, any red Bordeaux wine — Language: English. See: Greene, 'I swear by muscadell', Beames

clotted cream – thick cream from heated milk — Language: English. See: Jonson

clou de girofle – clove, Syzygium aromaticum — Language: French. See: Lorris

clove – dried fruit of Syzygium aromaticum with aromatic, culinary and medicinal uses — Language: English. See: Byron

cochlea – snail, , especially the edible kinds, Helix spp. and others — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

comoedus – comic actor — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

coeur d'artichaut – heart of artichoke, Cynara Scolymus — Language: French. See: Fleming

coffee – seed of Coffea arabica; stimulating drink made from this seed when roasted and ground — Language: English. See: Rankin, Trollope, Byron, Beames

cognac – spirits (hard liquor) made in the neighbourhood of Cognac (France) by distilling the local white wine — Language: French. See: Byron

coing – quince, Cydonia oblonga — Language: French. See: Lorris

comoedus – comic actor — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

Cordial Médoc please suggest a definition! — Language: French. See: Connolly

cork – the tree Quercus Suber (cork oak); its inner bark; bottle stopper made from this bark — Language: English. See: Borrow

corme – sorb, Sorbus domestica — Language: French. See: Lorris

costoletta di vitello alla griglia – grilled veal chop (it sounds better in Italian) — Language: Italian. See: Cornwell

costus – costus, putchuk, Saussurea Lappa — Language: Latin. See: Anthimus

Côte Rôtie – red wine from a small district in the Rhône valley, France — Language: French. See: Sterne

côtelettes d'agneau Reform – lamb cutlets Reform (served with a sauce devised by Alexis Soyer, chef at the Reform Club, London, in the 19th century) — Language: chefs' French. See: Powell

coudre – hazel, Corylus avellana — Language: French. See: Lorris

crannachan, cranachan – cold dessert made by combining toasted oatmeal with whipped cream and raspberries or other fruit — Language: English of Scotland. See: Rankin [definition after A cook's tour of Britain (1984). Not in OED CD-ROM]

cream – fat-rich part of milk — Language: English. See: Trollope, Carrington

crème – cream — Language: French. See: Villon

cress – salad vegetable, Lepidium sativum — Language: English. See: Wilkins and others

crolle – ringlet; the at sign (@) — Language: French of Belgium. See: Traduire

cru – cold, raw (of weather) — Language: French. See: Rézeau

crumpet – thick pancake, eaten hot with melted butter — Language: English. See: Trollope

cucumber sandwich – two layers of bread and butter with a filling of sliced cucumber — Language: English. See: Wilde

cucurbita – bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria; its flesh cooked as a vegetable — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

curd – solid formed as milk begins to separate — Language: English. See: Jonson

curmi – alcoholic drink, possibly one made from the fruit of the sorb or serviceberry, cf. regional French cormé — Language: Latin of Gaul. See: Marcellus

curried chicken – chicken cooked with Indian spices; not now a typical British breakfast dish, but it was in 1894 — Language: English. See: Conan Doyle

curried sole – sole, Solea spp., cooked with Indian spices — Language: English. See: Beames

custard – a dish made of eggs and milk, sweetened with sugar; a sauce made similarly, resembling that known in French as crème anglaise; in modern Britain, sweet yellow sauce made from custard powder — Language: English. See: Lear

date-bread – pressed flesh of dried dates, Phoenix dactylifera, served as sweetmeat — Language: English. See: Byron

dattier – date palm, Phoenix dactylifera — Language: French. See: Lorris

dell – girl — Language: Cant English. See: Middleton

devilled eggs please suggest a definition! — Language: English. See: Steinbeck

devilled kidneys – kidneys grilled with hot spices — Language: English. See: Trollope

dextro cornu – reclining at dinner on the observer's extreme left; literally 'on the right horn' — Language: Latin. See: Dunbabin

dinner – main meal of the day, taken at midday or in the evening — Language: English. See: Pepys, Jerome, Voyat

Dolcetto d'Alba – appellation for red wines from the Dolcetto grape made in Alba and the northern Langhe hills (Cuneo, Italy); usually drunk young, but an older vintage is served to Kay Scarpetta — Language: Italian. See: Cornwell

du monde – a lot of people, a crowd — Language: French. See: Dalby

duck – aquatic bird, Anas platyrhynchus and other species — Language: English. See: Woodforde

dulce – sweet wine; sweet sauce — Language: Latin. See: Anthimus

duracina – variety of table grapes; literally 'hard-berried' — Language: Latin. See: Augustus

duvet – down (soft feathers); bedspread, in regional French of Switzerland, and now familiar as a loanword in English in this sense — Language: French. See: Rézeau

ear flower – the plant Cymbopetalum penduliflorum, Spanish orejuela, Nahuatl xochinacaztli — Language: English. See: Coe

eau-de-vie – spirits (hard liquor) — Language: French. See: Mercier

echinus – sea urchin, Echinus esculentus and other species — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

egg – reproductive capsule of animals; those of some birds are used as food by humans, and were traditionally regarded as strengthening or aphrodisiac — Language: English. See: Byron, Burgess, Dixon, Dalby

egg flip – a drink made of yolk and white of egg beaten with spirits, wine or beer — Language: English. See: Lear

eggs over easy please suggest a definition! — Language: English of United States. See: Chan

egthu – to create a pinching sensation in the armpit — Language: Boro. See: Abley

Eiskrem – ice cream — Language: German. See: Seither

emmer – species of wheat grown in Mediterranean countries, Triticum dicoccum, important in the classical Greek and Roman economy — Language: English. See: Wilkins and others

en vrac – of wine, sold in a container brought by the purchaser — Language: French. See: Dalby

endive – vegetable with bitter flavour, Cichorium Endivia, often served braised — Language: English. See: Maupin

entre la poire et le fromage please suggest a definition! — Language: French. See: Fougeret

entrée – main course dish — Language: French. See: Zola

epityrum – olive paste — Language: Latin. See: Cato

érable – maple, Acer spp. — Language: French. See: Lorris

Erdapfel – potato (Solanum tuberosum), literally 'earth-apple' — Language: German of Austria. See: Markhardt

eringo, eryngo, ringo – candied root of sea holly, Eryngium maritimum, once thought to be an aphrodisiac — Language: English. See: Otway

Eryx – Erice (Sicily), a centre of sacred prostitution and the worship of Venus — Language: Latin. See: Ovid

escargot – snail, especially the edible kinds, Helix spp. and others; the at sign (@) — Language: French. See: Traduire

ewe's milk – milk of sheep, Ovis Aries — Language: English. See: Jonson

fagiuolo – haricot bean, Phaseolus vulgaris — Language: Italian. See: Jonson

far – emmer, Triticum dicoccum — Language: Latin. See: Wilkins and others

fegatelli di maiale – pork dish typical of modern Rome — Language: Italian. See: Laurioux

fel – wine from the mountainous district of le Fel (Aveyron, France) whose appellation is vins d'Entraygues et du Fel — Language: French. See: Graveline

ferculum – serving dish — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

fig – the tree Ficus Carica, native to the Near East; its fruit, eaten fresh or dried — Language: English. See: Douglas

figuier – fig tree, Ficus carica — Language: French. See: Lorris

fille de bien – prostitute, 'good time girl'— Language: French. See: Fougeret

flan – open pie with savoury, fruit or custard filling — Language: English. See: Jonson

flan – tart filled with custard — Language: French. See: Villon

foie gras – liver of force-fed goose or duck — Language: French. See: Zola

folium – leaf; tejpat leaf, Cinnamomum Tamala; perhaps also bay leaf, Laurus nobilis — Language: Latin. See: Anthimus

fool – mixture of cream and fruit purée, eaten as dessert — Language: English. See: Jonson

formaggio – cheese — Language: Italian. See: Dalby

formaticum – cheese made in a mould — Language: proto-Romance (unrecorded popular Latin) See: Dalby

fou – beech, Fagus spp. — Language: Old French. See: Lorris

fougasse – kind of bread — Language: French. See: Rézeau

fourme – kind of cheese — Language: French. See: Rézeau

fowl – bird, especially when hunted or as food — Language: English. See: Pepys

frangipane – aromatic flower (Plumiera rubra), so called because its scent resembles a 17th century Italian perfume — Language: English. See: Burgess

frankincense – aromatic resin of Boswellia Carteri and other species — Language: English. See: Stark

French dressing – blend of oil and vinegar used as salad dressing in France; in Britain and US, a manufactured sauce resembling this — Language: French. See: Fleming

French fries – chips — Language: English of United States. See: Chan

frene – ash, Fraxinus spp. — Language: French. See: Lorris

fromage – cheese — Language: French. See: Dalby

fromage d'Hollande – Edam cheese — Language: French. See: La Fontaine

fromage de gain – cream cheese — Language: Middle French. See: Taillevent

fromatge – cheese — Language: Occitan. See: Dalby

fromentée – frumenty, pudding made from boiled wheat with spices — Language: French. See: Villon

frumentum – wheat, Triticum spp. — Language: Latin. See: Ammianus

fumature – manuring — Language: French. See: Rézeau

gabouille – mud, slush — Language: French. See: Rézeau

Gaditana – girl from Gades (Cadiz), especially when employed as an erotic dancer — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

gallinaccio – turkey; literally a 'brutish cross-dressing hen', Downie suggests — Language: Italian. See: Downie

gariofilum, cariofilum – cloves, Syzygium aromaticum — Language: Latin. See: Anthimus

geline – hen, female of Gallus gallinaceus — Language: Middle French. See: Villon

gens – clan, people, nation; the plural gentes, under the influence of Biblical Hebrew, later means 'gentiles, pagans', hence, once at least, the singular gens 'a pagan' — Language: Latin. See: Adams

gingiber – ginger, Zingiber officinale — Language: Latin. See: Anthimus

girofle – cloves, Syzygium aromaticum — Language: French. See: Labat

glace néapolitaine – Neapolitan ice cream (ice cream of several colours set together in a mould and served in slices) — Language: chefs' French. See: Powell

glaieul – iris-like plant, Gladiolus spp. — Language: French. See: Voyage de Charlemagne

goi – people, nation; the plural goyyim therefore also means 'gentiles, pagans', and eventually the singular goi 'a pagan, a non-Jew' — Language: Hebrew See: Adams

gorilka – vodka — Language: Ukrainian. See: Omorokowa

graine de bois d'Inde – bay rum berry, Pimenta racemosa — Language: French. See: Labat

graine de paradis – grains of paradise, Aframomum Melegueta — Language: French. See: Lorris

grains of paradise – a spice native to West Africa, Aframomum Melegueta, resembling cardamom — Language: English. See: IFAQs

grape-hyacinth – plant grown in northern Europe for its blue flowers (Muscari comosum); the bulb is cooked and served as an appetiser in Italy and Greece and was considered an aphrodisiac in classical Greece and Rome — Language: English. See: Dalby

grapefruit – large citrus fruit, apparently a hybrid, Citrus Paradisi — Language: English. See: Burgess

grappe de raisin – bunch of grapes (Vitis vinifera) — Language: French. See: Casanova

graspia – secondary wine, made from grapes or grape marc boiled in water — Language: Venetian. See: Casanova

gravy – meat sauce — Language: English. See: Chan

gruntling cheat – pig, Sus Scrofa — Language: Cant English. See: Middleton

guar gum – natural food thickening agent — Language: English. See: Seither

Guarkernmehl – guar gum — Language: German. See: Seither

guarracino please suggest a definition! — Language: Italian. See: Douglas

ham and eggs – typical British breakfast dish — Language: English. See: Conan Doyle, Chan

hazelnut – fruit kernel of Corylus avellana — Language: English. See: Gay

herba – grass, green herb — Language: Latin. See: Ovid

herba salax – poetic name for rocket, Eruca sativa; literally 'lascivious herb', because of its reputation as an aphrodisiac — Language: Latin. See: Ovid

Hermitage – red wine from a small district in the Rhône valley, France — Language: French. See: Sterne

hipocrás – hippocras, a spiced wine — Language: Spanish. See: Ariza

Hoja'i – source or quality designation of frankincense — Language: Arabic. See: Stark

homie – close friend, buddy — Language: English. See: Notes

homo – human, Homo sapiens — Language: Latin. See: Terence

honey – food produced by bees and used by humans — Language:English. See: Dalby, Burgess

hordeum, ordeum – barley, Hordeum vulgare — Language: Latin. See: Ammianus

hot-cake – griddle-cake — Language: English of United States. See: Greene

hot dog – Frankfurter sausage, served hot in a sliced roll, often with fried onion and tomato ketchup — Language: English. See: Maupin

hot-house peach – peach grown in glasshouse to be marketed out of season — Language: English. See: Wodehouse

hueyi nacaztli – ear flower, Cymbopetalum penduliflorum — Language: Nahuatl. See: Furetière

huître – oyster, Ostrea spp., said to be aphrodisiac — Language: French. See: Safran

human flesh – meat of human beings, Homo sapiens, considered as food — Language: English. See: Dalby, Galen

humanae carnes – human flesh, meat of Homo sapiens — Language: Latin. See: Dalby

ice cream – confection made of milk or cream or substitutes with sugar and vanilla or other flavourings, lightly frozen — Language: English. See: Capote, Greene

imidzh – image — Language: Russian of Ukraine. See: Omorokowa

Irene – 'Peace', name of a woman slave, real or symbolic— Language: Latin. See: Dunbabin

itsim-te – the plant Clerodendrum ligustrinum — Language: classical Maya. See: Coe

ivresse – drunkenness — Language: French. See: Safran

Jause – snack; elevenses — Language: German of Bavaria. See: Voyat

jelly – translucent coloured confection, usually based on sweetened fruit juice, thickened with gelatine — Language: English. See: Byron

juniper – coniferous shrub, Juniperus communis, often grown ornamentally, whose berry-like cones are used as a flavouring, notably in gin; also other shrubs and trees of genus Juniperus — Language: English. See: Nabokov

juramento hipocrático – Hippocratic oath — Language: Spanish. See: Ariza

ka-ka-w – chocolate, hot drink made from seeds of Theobroma Cacao — Language: Maya. See: Coe

kakawa – chocolate, hot drink made from seeds of Theobroma Cacao — Language: Mixe-Zoque. See: Coe

kardamon – cress, Lepidium sativum and other species — Language: ancient Greek. See: Wilkins and others

kemboja – frangipane, Plumiera rubra — Language: Malay, Indonesian, Malaysian. See: Burgess

kidala – swindler — Language: Russian of Ukraine. See: Omorokowa

kipper, kippered herring – smoked and salted herring — Language: English. See: Wodehouse, Burgess

Klammeraffe – spider monkey, Ateles spp.; the at sign (@) — Language: German. See: Traduire

klibanos – baking crock — Language: ancient Greek. See: Wilkins and others

kokhati – to love (especially a person) — Language: Ukrainian. See: Omorokowa

kryak – hacker — Language: Russian of Ukraine. See: Omorokowa

kulak – ear; the at sign (@) — Language: Turkish. See: Traduire

kyphi – mixture of aromatics used by Egyptians as incense and medicine — Language: Greek. See: Dalby

la – [persuasive particle; affirmatory particle] — Language: English of Hong Kong. See: James

lac – milk — Language: Latin. See: Bede, William of Malmesbury

lactuca – lettuce, Lactuca sativa — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

lamb – young sheep, Ovis Aries; meat from this — Language: English. See: Jonson, Byron

Laphroaig – Scotch malt whisky brand — Language: English. See: Rankin

lard – bacon — Language: French. See: Taillevent

lardo – bacon — Language: Medieval Latin. See: Johann von Bockenheim

lark – species of songbird, Galerida cristata — Language: English. See: Pepys

laurel – another name for bay, Laurus nobilis; another name for cherry-laurel, Prunus laurocerasus — Language: English. See: Dalby

laurier, laurier-sauce – bay, Laurus nobilis — Language: French. See: Voyage de Charlemagne, , Lorris

laurus – bay, Laurus nobilis, whose aromatic leaves were worn as a wreath — Language: Latin. See: Fleming

lèche – slice (of bacon) — Language: Middle French. See: Taillevent

lector – professional reader of poetry or literature — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

leek – aromatic vegetable, Allium Porrum — Language: English. See: Dalby

leg – limb adapted for walking; cut of meat consisting of this limb — Language: English. See: Pepys, Woodforde

lepus – hare, Lepus capensis — Language: Latin. See: Anthimus

libum – a cake, suitable both for eating and for offering to the gods — Language: Latin. See: Cato

liqueur – spirits (hard liquor) with flavourings and sugar — Language: French. See: Safran

liquorice or licorice – aromatic root, Glycyrrhiza glabra, chewed as a delicacy; the extract of this root as a sweetmeat, flavouring and medicine — Language: English. See: Douglas

loin – lower torso; cut of meat from this part of an animal — Language: English. See: Pepys

luccio marino – spet, Mediterranean barracuda species, Sphyraena sphyraena — Language: Italian. See: Belon

lunch – midday meal — Language: English. See: Snow

lyristes – lyre-player — Language: Greek. See: Pliny the Younger

lyubit' – to love (especially an object or activity) — Language: Ukrainian. See: Omorokowa

lyubiti – to love — Language: Russian. See: Omorokowa

macaroni – a kind of pasta, maccherone in Italian — Language: English. See: Jonson

maccherone – macaroni, kind of pasta — Language: Italian. See: Boccaccio

maize – fruit of Zea Mays, known in the United States as corn — Language: English. See: Coe

malabathron – tejpat, leaf of Cinnamomum Tamala — Language: Greek. See: Dalby

malabathrum, malobathrum – tejpat, leaf of Cinnamomum Tamala — Language: Latin. See: Dalby

Malaga – sweet, fortified wine from the region of Malaga (Spain) — Language: Spanish. See: Nerciat

malagueta – grains of Paradise, Aframomum Melegueta — Language: Portuguese. See: IFAQs

mammole – the best artichokes; literally 'big mammas', because the big ones give birth to smaller artichokes, figli or 'children', on the stem — Language: Italian. See: Downie

Mandarinette – liqueur flavoured with mandarin oranges — Language: French. See: Connolly

marceolinus – marzolino cheese, once familiar in Tuscany (Italy) — Language: Renaissance Latin. See: Platina

marijuana – hemp plant, Cannabis sativa; its leaves, used (usually smoked) for their narcotic effect — Language: English. See: Ariza

marrow-bone – bone containing (edible) marrow, sometimes served separately as a dish — Language: English. See: Pepys

Marsala – appellation for white wine, usually fortified, usually sweet, produced at Marsala (Sicily, Italy) — Language: Italian. See: Lear

mashed potato – potato boiled and mashed, a familiar side dish in England — Language: English. See: Dalby

matushka – motherboard — Language: Russian of Ukraine. See: Omorokowa

mauvis – redwing (species of thrush), Turdus iliacus — Language: French. See: Taillevent

Mavrodaphni – fortified red wine from around Patras (southern Greece) — Language: Greek. See: Miller

maza – preparation of barley, resembling modern tsampa — Language: ancient Greek. See: Wilkins and others

mecaxóchitl – an aromatic native to Central America, higuillo de limón, Piper amalago — Language: Nahuatl. See: Furetière

medulla – bone-marrow — Language: Latin. See: Pliny

mejillón – mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis — Language: Spanish. See: Avila

mel – honey — Language: Latin. See: Ovid, Bede

membrum – limb — Language: Latin. See: Pliny

merum – wine; literally 'pure, unmixed' — Language: Latin. See: Ovid, Dalby

Michel Morin – handyman — Language: French. See: Rézeau

Milan – city of northern Italy, once well known for cheese — Language: French. See: Saint-Amant

milk – liquid secreted by females to feed their young; animals' milk, most often cows' milk, when used as food — Language: English. See: Dalby

misce nobis – mix wine and water for us (instruction to a servant); literally 'mix to us' — Language: Latin. See: Dunbabin

Mocha – city in Arabia, traditionally a centre for the export of coffee; high quality coffee as exported from Mocha — Language: English. See: Byron

mojama – salted tunny — Language: Spanish. See: Avila

molinillo – stick for producing froth in hot chocolate — Language: Spanish. See: Coe

monde – world — Language: French. See: Dalby

mountain – a style of Malaga wine — Language: older English. See: Woodforde

moussoir – stick used to froth chocolate — Language: French. See: Mirabeau

muffin – small soft bread, toasted, eaten with melted butter — Language: English. See: Trollope

mulsum – spiced honeyed wine — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

murra, myrra – myrrh, resin of Commiphora Myrrha — Language: Latin. See: Dalby

murrina – myrrh-flavoured wine — Language: Latin. See: Dalby

murru – myrrh, resin of Commiphora Myrrha — Language: Akkadian. See: Dalby

muscade, noix muscade – nutmeg, Myristica fragrans — Language: French. See: Labat

muscadel – a sweet wine from southern Europe familiar in English in the 15th to 17th centuries — Language: English. See: 'I swear by muscadell'

mutton – meat of the sheep, Ovis Aries — Language: English. See: Pepys, Woodforde

mutton chop – rib cut of mutton — Language: English. See: Burgess, Beames

myrrh – aromatic resin of Commiphora Myrrha — Language: English. See: Dalby

nardon – spikenard, root of Nardostachys Jatamansi; similar aromatics, mostly of genus Valeriana — Language: Greek. See: Dalby

nardostachys – spikenard, root of Nardostachys Jatamansi — Language: Greek. See: Dalby

nardus – spikenard, root of Nardostachys Jatamansi; similar aromatics, mostly of genus Valeriana — Language: Latin. See: Dalby

nâtâf – 'droplet' (best quality) myrrh, resin of Commiphora Myrrha — Language: Hebrew. See: Dalby

neat – bull or cow or their young, Bos Taurus — Language: English. See: Pepys

nèfle – medlar, Mespilus germanica — Language: French. See: Lorris

Nesselrode pudding – iced dessert made with chestnuts, cream, preserved fruits and nuts, often flavoured with rum — Language: English. See: Wodehouse [Definition after OED]

nettle – widespread green plant (Urtica dioica, Urtica urens), stinging when touched, used as potherb and in herbal medicine — Language: English. See: Dalby 1, 2

newt – the aquatic members of the family Salamandridae that constitute the genus Molge — Language: English. See: Jonson

nivis – snow (used as a garnish and for cooling wine) — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

noisette – hazelnut, Corylus avellana — Language: French. See: Lorris

noisette d'Inde please suggest a definition! — Language: French. See: Furetière

noix – walnut, Juglans regia — Language: French. See: Lorris

noix muscade – nutmeg, Myristica fragrans — Language: French. See: Lorris

nou-khau – know-how — Language: Russian of Ukraine. See: Omorokowa

noyer – walnut tree, Juglans regia — Language: French. See: Lorris

nux pinea – pine nut, from cones of Pinus pinea — Language: Latin. See: Ovid

nyuga – wild tamarind or native tamarind, Diploglottis australis — Language: Dyirbal. See: Dixon

octopus – sea creature with eight tentacles, Octopus vulgaris and other species (borrowed from scientific Latin, where the plural is octopodes; in English 'octopuses' is preferable) — Language: English. See: Dalby

oldschool – early hip-hop music — Language: English. See: Notes

oliva – olive, fruit of Olea europaea — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

olivier – olive tree, Olea europaea — Language: French. See: Lorris

olivo – olive tree, Olea europaea — Language: Spanish. See: Cieza de Leon

olyra – emmer, Triticum dicoccum — Language: ancient Greek. See: Wilkins and others

onsra – to love for the last time — Language: Boro. See: Abley

opsophagia – gluttony, particularly focusing on fish or meat rather than bread — Language: ancient Greek. See: Wilkins and others

orange – fruit of tree native to southern China, Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium — Language: English. See: Byron, Woodforde, Dalby

ordeitius – made of barley, Hordeum vulgare — Language: Medieval Latin. See: William of Malmesbury

orme – elm, Ulmus spp. — Language: French. See: Lorris

ostreum – oyster, Ostrea spp., said to be aphrodisiac — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

ovum – egg — Language: Latin. See: Ovid, Pliny the Younger

oyster – a shellfish, Ostrea edulis and other species, often eaten raw; traditionally considered aphrodisiac — Language: English. See: Byron

pain – bread — Language: French. See: Les Narbonnais, Villon

pandy – champ — Language: English of Ireland. See: Dalby

panis – bread — Language: Latin. See: William of Malmesbury, Augustus

paon – peacock, Pavo cristatus — Language: French. See: Les Narbonnais

papaya – tropical fruit, Carica Papaya — Language: English. See: Burgess

Paradiesapfel – tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), literally 'apple of Paradise' — Language: German of Austria. See: Markhardt

parasitos – participant in a ritual feast offered to a god; later, one who always acts as guest and never hosts a dinner; hence the modern scientific term 'parasite' — Language: ancient Greek. See: Wilkins and others

parmensis – Parmesan cheese — Language: Renaissance Latin. See: Platina

Parmesan – cheese made around Parma (Italy), now under the appellation Parmigiano Reggiano; in the United States the name is also used for cheeses made outside Europe in imitation of Parmesan — Language: English. See: Stevenson

parmigiano – Parmesan cheese — Language: Italian. See: Boccaccio

pata negra – smoked ham — Language: Spanish. See: Avila

pâté – pie (pastry containing meat or other food); cooked meat shaped to fill pastry or another container, usually to be eaten cold — Language: French. See: Taillevent

pea – legume, Pisum sativum, eaten fresh ('green') or variously prepared after drying — Language: English. See: Woodforde

pear – the tree Pyrus communis; its fruit — Language: English. See: Browning

pêche – peach, Persica vulgaris — Language: French. See: Lorris

peis come – spet, Mediterranean barracuda species, Sphyraena sphyraena — Language: Niçois. See: Belon

pellitory-of-Spain – medicinal herb native to Europe (Anacyclus pyrethrum) — Language: English. See: Dalby

pepper – (green, black or white depending on ripeness and preparation), dried berry of Piper nigrum, a spice and flavouring — Language: English. See: Dalby

persimmon – fruit of Diospyros virginiana and other species — Language: English. See: Capote

petasser – to patch clothes — Language: French. See: Rézeau

petite oreille – ear flower, Cymbopetalum penduliflorum — Language: French. See: Furetière

pheasant – game bird, Phasianus colchicus and other species — Language: English. See: Capote

pigeon – pigeon, Columba Palumbus — Language: French. See: Smollett

pigne – pinecone — Language: French. See: Rézeau

pin – pine, Pinus spp. — Language: French. See: Voyage de Charlemagne, Lorris

pine – pinecone — Language: French. See: Rézeau

pine nut – kernel of the cones of Pinus pinea, used as a culinary flavouring — Language: English. See: Dalby

pinguedo – fat, oil — Language: Medieval Latin. See: Johann von Bockenheim

pinole – dried and sweetened maize (corn) — Language: English. See: Coe

pip, the pip – disease of poultry — Language: English. See: Lear

piper – pepper (Piper nigrum), a spice and genitourinary drug — Language: Latin. See: Ovid, Anthimus

piperatum nigrum – dish of kid with black pepper sauce — Language: Medieval Latin. See: Johann von Bockenheim

pipio – pigeon — Language: Medieval Latin. See: Johann von Bockenheim

piqsirpok – drifting snow — Language: Inuit. See: Dalby

piscis – fish — Language: Latin. See: Bede

pistachio nut – fruit of tree native to eastern Afghanistan, Pistacia vera — Language: English. See: Byron

pive – pinecone — Language: French. See: Rézeau

placenta – in ancient Roman cookery, a rich confection which may be likened to cheesecake (the modern term 'placenta' is a metaphor based on this early sense) — Language: Latin. See: Cato

plum wine – a country wine made in northern Europe from sweetened plum juice; a stronger and much more drinkable liquor made in China and Japan — Language: English. See: Goullart

poached egg – egg dish — Language: English. See: Chan

pochteca – Aztec merchants — Language: Nahuatl. See: Coe

poire – pear, Pyrus communis — Language: French. See: Lorris

poivre – pepper, Piper nigrum — Language: French. See: Furetière

poivre de Mexique – chilli (hot peppers), Capsicum annuum — Language: French. See: Furetière

poivre des Indes – bonnet pepper, Capsicum chinense — Language: French. See: Furetière

poivre long – long pepper, Piper longum — Language: French. See: Mercier

polipi in padella alla Luciana – octopus in tomato sauce, but who was Luciana? — Language: Italian. See: Downie

pollo al limone – chicken cooked with lemon — Language: Italian. See: Cornwell

pomegranate – fruit of Mediterranean tree, Punica granatum — Language: English. See: Byron, Dalby

pomme – apple, Malus pumila — Language: French. See: Lorris

pomme grenade – pomegranate, Punica granatum — Language: French. See: Lorris

pommier – apple tree, Malus pumila — Language: French. See: Lorris

pomodoro – tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, literally 'golden apple' — Language: Italian. See: Matthioli

Pont-l'Evêque – appellation of cheese originating in Normandy — Language: French. See: Saint-Amant

porge calda – add hot water to the wine (instruction to a servant); literally 'add hot' — Language: Latin. See: Dunbabin

pork chop – rib cut of pork, often served grilled or fried — Language: English. See: Chan

porridge – dish made from oats boiled in milk and water — Language: English. See: Burgess

port – fortified wine from the lower Douro valley, exported from Porto (Portugal) — Language: English. See: Woodforde

potage Solférino – a vegetable soup — Language: French. See: Powell

poularde – pullet — Language: French. See: Zola

poulet à la maréchale – recipe for chicken, fried in breadcrumbs, often served with asparagus tips and truffles — Language: French. See: Zola

poundies – champ — Language: English of Ireland. See: Dalby

prawn – group of small river and sea creatures — Language: English. See: Pepys

prune – plum, Prunus domestica — Language: French. See: Lorris

pshyonnaya kasha – millet porridge — Language: Russian. See: Frayn

pullet – chicken, Gallus gallinaceus — Language: English. See: Pepys

pyrethrum – pellitory-of-Spain or Spanish chamomile, Anacyclus Pyrethrum, said to be aphrodisiac — Language: Latin. See: Ovid

qana – falling snow — Language: Inuit. See: Dalby

qimuqsuq – snowdrift — Language: Inuit. See: Dalby

quacking cheat – duck, Anas platyrhynchus and other species — Language: Cant English. See: Middleton

quail – migratory bird species, Coturnix Coturnix — Language: English. See: Wodehouse

quinto quarto – offal; literally the 'fifth quarter' — Language: Italian. See: Downie

radish – spicy root vegetable, Raphanus sativus — Language: English. See: Jonson

raisin – dried grape, fruit of Vitis vinifera; fresh grape [in older English] — Language: English. See: Byron, Woodforde, Dalby

raisin – grape, fruit of Vitis vinifera — Language: French. See: Casanova

ramier – ramier-pigeon or red-necked pigeon, Columba squamosa — Language: French of the Caribbean. See: Labat

ramier-pigeon – (or red-necked pigeon) bird species native to the Caribbean, Columba squamosa — Language: English of the Caribbean. See: Labat

Rasmi – source or quality designation of frankincense — Language: Arabic. See: Stark

rat – rat, Rattus spp. — Language: French. See: La Fontaine

ratafia de Neuilly – a fruit liqueur as made in the 18th century at Neuilly near Paris — Language: French. See: Fougeret

raviuolo – ravioli, kind of pasta — Language: Italian. See: Boccaccio

reglisse – liquorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra — Language: French. See: Lorris

relevé – dish following the soup or fish and preceding the entrées — Language: French. See: Zola

riblette – collop (of bacon) — Language: Middle French. See: Taillevent

rice – cereal, seed of Oryza sativa — Language: English. See: Chan

rigatoni – pasta with fluted surface — Language: Italian. See: Cornwell

riz – rice, Oryza sativa — Language: French. See: Villon

roast beef – sliced roasted beef, dish said to be typical of Britain — Language: English. See: Rankin

rocket – salad plant (Eruca sativa) also known as roquette and arugula — Language: English. See: Dalby

rose – rose, Rosa spp. — Language: French. See: Voyage de Charlemagne

rose d'Alexandrie, rose pâle – rose variety, Rosa sp., familiar in early modern Europe — Language: French. See: Furetière

rôti – roast, roasted — Language: French. See: Les Narbonnais

sabaia – ale brewed from wheat or barley, a poor people's drink in the Roman province of Illyricum (modern Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia) — Language: Latin. See: Ammianus

sabaiarius – a potman or barman, a seller of sabaia — Language: Latin. See: Ammianus

sack – a strong dry white wine from southern Spain, familiar in England in the 15th to 18th centuries — Language: English. See: 'I swear by muscadell'

Saeites – ancient appellation for wines from a district in Roman Egypt — Language: Greek. See: Dalby

saffron – stamen of Crocus sativus, used as aromatic and colouring — Language: English. See: Byron

saffron bun – buns traditionally baked in Cornwall, incorporating saffron — Language: English. See: Carrington, Dalby

saffron rice – boiled rice coloured and aromatised with saffron — Language: English. See: Capote

saffron soup please suggest a definition! — Language: English. See: Byron

sagmarius – packhorse — Language: Latin. See: Adams

Saitum – ancient appellation for wines from a district in Roman Egypt — Language: Latin. See: Dalby

sal – salt — Language: Latin. See: Marcellus

salad – mixture of vegetables, typically served raw — Language: English. See: Capote

salep – the ground root of an orchid (Orchis mas and other species), familiar as a hot winter drink in Turkey and the Balkans — Language: English, originally Turkish. See: Dalby

salmon – fish species, Salmo spp. — Language: English. See: Wodehouse

salt – sodium chloride, used as preservative and seasoning — Language: English. See: Jonson

Samhali – source or quality designation of frankincense — Language: Arabic. See: Stark

sang – American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius — Language: English of United States. See: Simak

sanguis – blood — Language: Latin. See: Pliny

sapin – fir, Abies spp. — Language: French. See: Lorris

sapinette – pinecone — Language: French. See: Rézeau

sapote – the tree Achras Zapota, source of the fruit sapodilla and the gum chicle — Language: English. See: Coe

sarsaparilla – a natural drug, root of Smilax spp. — Language: English. See: Coe

satureium – salep, bulb of Orchis mas and others, said to be aphrodisiac — Language: Latin. See: Ovid

sauce Béarnaise – sauce for meat incorporating eggs and butter — Language: French. See: Fleming

sauce ravigote – series of sauce recipes in classic French cuisine — Language: French. See: Zola

saucisse – sausage — Language: French. See: Taillevent

saucisse sèche – raw air-dried sausage — Language: French. See: Graveline

saucisson à l'ail – garlic sausage — Language: French. See: Kiki

saucisson de Boulogne – Bologna sausage — Language: French. See: Fougeret

sausage – minced meat with flavourings, pressed into a cylindrical casing (traditionally intestines), sold uncooked to be boiled or grilled; a similar product sold already dried or smoked — Language: English. See: Burgess

Schweppes – brand of tonic water and other drinks — Language: English. See: Powell, Avila

scorfano – rascasse (scorpionfish), Scorpaena spp. — Language: Italian. See: Douglas

scrambled egg – egg cooked in a pan with butter — Language: English. See: Chan

scrub-hen – large bird of eastern Australia, Megapodius Tumulus — Language: English of Australia. See: Dixon

sel – salt — Language: French. See: Taillevent

sfirna – spet, Mediterranean barracuda species, Sphyraena sphyraena — Language: Greek of Lesbos and Smyrna. See: Belon

Shehri – source or quality designation of frankincense — Language: Arabic. See: Stark

sherbet – a drink traditional in the Middle East, made from fruit juice, sweetened, sometimes cooled with snow — Language: English. See: Byron, Dalby

sherry – strong, usually fortified, often sweet white wine from a region of southern Spain, matured at Jerez de la Frontera — Language: English. See: Snow

shish-kabob, shish-kebab – pieces of meat grilled on a skewer — Language: English. See: Heller

siligineus – made of bread-wheat, Triticum aestivum — Language: Latin. See: William of Malmesbury

simenel – simnel (kind of cake) — Language: Old French. See: Les Narbonnais

sirloin – cut of meat from the loin — Language: English. See: Smollett

sixpenny tea – afternoon meal served in cafés in 19th century England — Language: English. See: Jerome

slivovica – spirits distilled from fermented plum juice, typical of the Balkans — Language: Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian. See: Goullart

Sliwowitz, Slibowitz – slivovica, especially in its Balkan form; known in German-speaking countries as Pflaumenschnaps or Quetsch — Language: German. See: Goullart

smyrna – myrrh, resin of Commiphora Myrrha — Language: Greek. See: Dalby

sole Bercy – sole baked and glazed with butter — Language: French. See: Powell

sommier – packhorse — Language: French. See: Dalby

snail – gastropod with spiral shell — Language: English. See: Jonson

sole – sole, Solea spp. — Language: French. See: Zola

Spanish chamomile – also called pellitory-of-Spain, medicinal herb native to Europe (Anacyclus pyrethrum) — Language: English.

spelt – species of wheat grown in central Europe, Triticum Spelta; sometimes used inaccurately as a synonym for emmer, Triticum dicoccum, grown in Mediterranean countries — Language: English. See: Wilkins and others

sphyraina – spet, Mediterranean barracuda species, Sphyraena sphyraena — Language: Classical Greek. See: Belon

spica nardi – spikenard, Nardostachys Jatamansi — Language: Medieval Latin. See: Anthimus

spider – arachnid — Language: English. See: Jonson

spikenard – aromatic root of Nardostachys Jatamansi — Language: English. See: Dalby

spring onion – onion, Allium Cepa, harvested early for the tender bulb and green stem — Language: English. See: Dalby

stakte – 'droplet' (best quality) myrrh, resin of Commiphora Myrrha — Language: Greek. See: Dalby

steak – thick slice of lean meat, usually beef, often served grilled — Language: English. See: Capote

stibadium – semicircular arrangement of dining couches — Language: Latin. See: Dunbabin

strawberry – fruit, Fragaria spp.; the cultivated species of American origin, Fragaria vesca — Language: English. See: Fleming, Woodforde

strommel – straw — Language: Cant English. See: Middleton

sugar – (cane sugar) a natural sweet flavouring, crystallised sap of the sugar cane Saccharum officinarum — Language: English. See: Coe

sugar candy – cane sugar, crystallised and formed into cakes for trade (loan-translation of French sucre candi) — Language: English. See: Douglas

supper – evening meal — Language: English. See: Voyat

supplì al telefono – fried rice croquettes with mozzarella; literally 'surprise on the telephone' and Downie explains why — Language: Italian. See: Downie

sweet salad please suggest a definition! — Language: English. See: Greene

sweetbread – thymus or pancreas of an animal when used as food — Language: English. See: Byron

swizzle stick – implement used for stirring and frothing drinks — Language: English. See: Coe

Sybarite – inhabitant of the wealthy ancient city of Sybaris, southern Italy, famous for its connoisseurs of pleasure; one who spends lavishly on foods and pleasures — Language: English. See: Byron

t-...-t – [feminine affix] — Language: Berber. See: Dalby

tabac – tobacco, dried leaf of Nicotiana Tabacum — Language: French. See: Safran

table d'hôte – set menu — Language: chefs' French. See: Powell

tagmart – mare; borrowed from Latin sagmarius 'packhorse' — Language: Berber. See: Dalby

tapioca – flour or meal of cassava, Manihot esculenta and other species — Language: English. See: Capote

tart – pie, usually without upper crust — Language: English. See: Pepys, Woodforde

tea – the bush Camellia sinica; its dried leaves; hot drink made with these leaves; afternoon meal at which tea is drunk — Language: English. See: Carroll, Jerome, Snow, Byron, Beames, Voyat, Trollope

técnica del sandwich – Sandwich technique for serum analysis — Language: Spanish. See: Ariza

tejpat – aromatic leaf of Cinnamomum Tamala — Language: English of India. See: Dalby

terebinth – resinous Mediterranean tree, Pistacia atlantica, whose fruit is used as a source of oil — Language: English. See: Wilkins and others

terminthos – terebinth (Pistacia atlantica), a resinous tree, and its fruit — Language: ancient Greek. See: Wilkins and others

terrapin – freshwater turtle, Malaclemys spp. and others — Language: English. See: Capote

testum – tile; baking crock — Language: Latin. See: Wilkins and others

theobromine – stimulant naturally present in chocolate — Language: English. See: Coe

toast – bread sliced and grilled — Language: English. See: Trollope, , Burgess

toast – narrative poem in oral tradition — Language: English of United States, hip-hop jargon. See: Notes

tobacco – dried leaf of Nicotiana Tabacum, smoked as a narcotic — Language: English. See: Jonson, Capote

tomato – fruit native to Mexico, Lycopersicon esculentum, used as a vegetable, in sauces and as flavouring — Language: English. See: Dalby

tomato soup – smooth soup made with tomato — Language: English. See: Greene

tongue – fleshy organ in the mouth; the meat of this organ used as food — Language: English. See: Pepys, Woodforde

tónica – tonic water, carbonised water, sweetened and flavoured, including quinine — Language: Spanish. See: Avila

totero – squid, Loligo vulgaris and other species — Language: Italian. See: Douglas

tournedos – sliced fillet steak (beef) — Language: French. See: Fleming

tout le monde – everybody — Language: French. See: Dalby

tumble – sleep; have sex — Language: Cant English. See: Middleton

trachanas – preparation of emmer meal, dried with milk, to be later boiled as a soup — Language: Greek. See: Wilkins and others

tracta – preparation of wheat, perhaps resembling pasta, used as a culinary ingredient — Language: Latin. See: Wilkins and others

traganos – preparation of emmer, resembling modern trachanas — Language: ancient Greek. See: Wilkins and others

tragos – preparation of emmer, resembling modern trachanas — Language: ancient Greek. See: Wilkins and others

trapeza – table; refectory in a medieval monastery — Language: Greek. See: Malmberg

tremble – aspen, Populus tremula — Language: French. See: Lorris

triclinium – arrangement of three large dining couches facing into a central space; Roman dining room — Language: Latin. See: Dunbabin

turista – traveller's diarrhoea — Language: English. See: Ariza

tympanistria – female percussionist — Language: ancient Greek. See: Wilkins and others

urtica – nettle, Urtica dioica, Urtica urens, a wild plant, herb and genitourinary drug — Language: Latin. See: Ovid

uva – grape, fruit of Vitis vinifera — Language: Latin. See: Augustus

vanilla – an aromatic, fermented fruit of Vanilla fragrans — Language: English. See: Coe

veal – meat of the calf, young of Bos Taurus — Language: English. See: Pepys

venison – meat of the deer, Cervus Elaphus and other species — Language: English. See: Greene

Venus – sexual act, sexual pleasure; name of the Roman goddess of sexual love— Language: Latin. See: Ovid, Byron, Dalby, Safran

vermicelli – string-like pasta; literally 'little worms' — Language: Italian. See: Byron

vigitelli de porco – pork dish typical of Renaissance Rome, cf. fegatelli di maiale — Language: Medieval Latin. See: Johann von Bockenheim

vilicus – manager of an ancient Roman farm, usually a slave — Language: Latin. See: Cato

vin – wine, fermented juice of Vitis vinifera — Language: French. See: Safran

vin rouge – red wine — Language: French. See: Kiki

vinea – vineyard — Language: Latin. See: Bede

vinum – wine, fermented juice of Vitis vinifera — Language: Latin. See: Fleming, Dalby

viscera – innards, offal — Language: Latin. See: Pliny

vodka – spirits of alcohol, lightly flavoured — Language: Russian. See: Omorokowa

volucer – bird, fowl — Language: Latin. See: Bede

vulva – sow's womb, a Roman delicacy — Language: Latin. See: Pliny the Younger

waxwing – noisy small bird, specifically Bombycilla garrula (Bohemian waxwing) in Europe, Bombycilla cedrorum (cedar waxwing) in New England — Language: English. See: Nabokov

white – a colour; class of wines distinguished by their white or pale colour — Language: English. See: 'I swear by muscadell'

wild tamarind – tree of south-east Queensland and north-east New South Wales with edible, acid fruits, Diploglottis australis; also called native tamarind — Language: English of Australia. See: Dixon

wine – fermented juice of the grape, Vitis vinifera — Language: English. See: Jonson, Byron (twice), Rankin

wor – [epistemic particle] — Language: English of Hong Kong. See: James

yogurt – milk curdled and soured by bacterial cultures — Language: Spanish. See: Avila

za bugrom – across the border; literally 'over the hills' — Language: Russian of Ukraine. See: Omorokowa

zeia – hulled wheat, Triticum spp., including einkorn and emmer — Language: ancient Greek. See: Wilkins and others

zuppa di pesce – fish soup — Language: Italian. See: Douglas

zuppa inglese – Roman cream and jam trifle; literally 'English soup' — Language: Italian. See: Downie